Laveau (1794? – 1881)
“The Voodoo Queen of New Orleans”
Written and compiled by George Knowles
Marie Laveau is perhaps the most famous name associated with Voodoo in America, and in her time was revered as the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans. Marie Laveau was in fact two women, a mother (1794-1881) and her eldest daughter of the same name (1827-1897). Marie Laveau gained a reputation as one of the most feared yet popular women in the history New Orleans, and today many myths and legends surround their lives.
Marie Laveau I was born a free woman of colour in Santo Domingo, the capital city of the Dominican Republic sometime around 1794. She was a mulatto of white, black and Indian mixed blood, the daughter of a wealthy Creole planter, Charles Laveau and his mistress Marguerite Darcantel. Laveau moved to New Orleans in her youth and was raised a devout Catholic under the ministry of Pere Antoine, the chaplain at St. Louis Cathedral were she attended Mass on a daily bases. She was described as beautiful, tall and statuesque, with curly black hair, flashing bright eyes, reddish skin and “good” features (meaning she looked more white than Negroid).
Louis Cathedral, New Orleans – 1838 – 1858 – Present day.
On the 04th August 1819 Laveau married Jacques Paris (a quadroon – three-fourths white) a carpenter and a free man of colour from Saint-Domingue in Haiti. They were married at St. Louis Cathedral by Pere Antoine, and afterwards took up residence in a house at block 1900 North Rampart Street, given to them as part of her dowry from Charles Laveau. Shortly after their marriage Paris mysteriously disappeared, possibly back to Haiti, for he was not heard from again in New Orleans. His death certificate was filed some three years later in 1822, but no record of interment has ever been found. Laveau had obviously been devoted to Paris for she assumed the title of “Veuvee (widow) Paris”, later she even had his name inscribed on her tomb located in St. Louis Cemetery No 1 on Basin Street, which reads “Famille Veuvee Paris nee Laveau”.
tomb of “Famille Veuvee Paris nee Laveau”, located in the St. Louis Cemetery
No 1 on Basin Street, New Orleans.
In the absence of Paris and to support herself, Laveau became a
skilled hairdresser catering to the wealthy elite of New Orleans’ high
society. With her own good looks
and regal bearing, she soon gained a regular clientele, which included some of
the most influential white, black and Creole women in the city.
Overtime, many confided their most intimate secrets to Laveau, including
details about their husbands, their affairs, business dealing, fears and social
standing in high society. As she
quietly listened to their confessions, Laveau mentally filed away the
information sure she could use it to her own advantage in the future.
In 1826 Laveau became the mistress of Captain Louis Christophe
Duminy de Glapion, another quadroon and free man of colour.
According to his death certificate held in the archives of the Civil
District Court, New Orleans, he was born in St. John the Baptist parish in 1789.
Later Glapion served as a Captain in the Company of Men of San Domingo,
and was held in high regard for his service to New Orleans during the War of
1812. While they were never
formally married, they lived together at the house in North Rampart Street, were
in quick succession they had 15 children, the first was a daughter Marie Laveau II, born
on the 02nd February 1827. Glapion
died on the 26th June 1855 and was buried in the Laveau family tomb
in St. Louis Cemetery No 1.
By 1826, Laveau had built an extensive network of spies and
informants among the black servant community of New Orleans, many of who
regarded her with a mixture of fear and respect. Secretly, Laveau had been training with the famous “Voodoo
doctor” Jean Montaigne (Doctor John or John Bayou as he became known), who was
then the most powerful Voodoo practitioner in New Orleans, and learned from him
how to make the most potent charms, potions and gris-gris.
She also gained an extensive knowledge of herbs and natural healing
Laveau’s hairdressing skills took her into the homes of the
affluent elite, were she was often called upon to provide extra services:
telling fortunes, predicting the future, advising on love affairs and
preparing “gris-gris” for those needing a cure, charm or hex.
As her reputation as a Voodoo Queen increased (of which she was one of
many then operating), she gave up hairdressing to devote all her energies into
becoming the “supreme” Voodoo Queen of New Orleans.
Blacks had been practicing the old religions (Santería,
Voodoo and Shango worship) ever since their arrival from Africa and the
Caribbean in the early 1600’s. The
black slaves in America had been brought in by English privateers and landed at
Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. At
that time the number of slaves imported was quite small, but with the
development of the plantation system in the southern colonies, demand of more
labour became an issue, and the number of slaves imported greatly increased.
Another important source of labour was indentured servants, most
of who were poor Europeans hoping to escape the harsh conditions of their own
countries, and seeking to find new opportunities in America.
As slaves became increasingly important to the economic and
social structure of the colonies, particularly in the South, laws affecting
slave ownership and behaviour were modified.
Brutal treatment such as chaining, branding, mutilation and murder were
regulated and prohibited by law, but instances of cruelty continued well into
the 19th century. Overtime, as
slaves and indentured servants were released and became free, they also received
a number of legal rights, though in the main these were loosely enforced.
They had the right to own private property, set up businesses, arrange
marriages, contract for work and perhaps most importantly limited rights to
worship and practice their own religions.
By the time Laveau was born, New Orleans was already
established as the free black capital of the southern colonies, were blacks and
whites lived together in a multi cultural society. In the wake of the Haitian slave revolts of 1791-1804, many
Creole plantation owners from Saint Dominique and other West Indian islands,
fled with their slaves to America, settling and developing the plantations of
southern Louisiana. Many of the
slaves they brought with them also practiced Voodoo, one of the main religions
of Haiti, which quickly grew and spread. After
the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, and with the influx of thousands of
Voodoo practitioners, New Orleans soon began to rock to the beat of the drums.
In those early days the main meeting place for Voodoo worship and ritual was Congo Square on North Rampart Street (now called Beauregard Square), but eventually the frequency of these meetings frightened the ruling whites, who feared their meetings could lead to another uprising. As a result in 1817, new laws were passed in New Orleans forbidding blacks to gather for dancing or any other purpose except on Sundays, and then only in places designated by the Mayor. The most acceptable place was again Congo Square, were on Sundays they continued to dance, sing and worship their gods. It also became a popular “must see” place of risqué entertainment for whites and visitors.
Congo Square dances.
Before Laveau began to dominate the scene, there were a number
of other prominent masters who ruled over Voodoo in New Orleans, the most famous
of these was Jean Montaigne (Dr. John or John Bayou).
Dr. John was a freeman of colour who claimed to have been an African
prince in Senegal. As the story
goes, he had been enslaved by the Spanish and taken to Cuba, from where he was
freed by his master due to his loyal service.
He then became a sailor and world traveller, eventually landing in New
Orleans to find work at the port. There
he quickly began to dominate the practice of Voodoo and found many willing to
pay for his charms, potions, cures, gris-gris bags, and other magical items.
Dr. John soon became a rich man and bought a large house on
Bayou Rd that he filled with all the paraphernalia of Voodoo.
He travelled about in a fine carriage pulled by a matched pair of horses
worthy of a planter. He also bought a number of slaves, the women of which he
married according to African tradition. It
was later said he fathered as many as fifty children. Dr. John’s work as a Voodooist mainly involved telling
fortunes, casting spells, removing curses, curing minor illnesses and dispensing
his gris-gris. The lucrative
rituals at Congo Square he left to the numerous Voodoo Queens to fight over.
Dr. John was probably the first of his kind to make a serious profit out
of Voodoo practices, until his protégé Marie Laveau came on the scene.
By the time Laveau appeared, Congo Square was still the main
location for Voodoo worship, but secretly (although most people knew) rites and
ceremonies were also conducted in other places, included a plot of land in the
Vieux Carre on Dumaine Street (now known as the French Quarter), the banks
of Bayou St. John and on the shore of Lake Pontchartrain.
Laveau started her rise to power by quietly taking control of Lake
Pontchartrain. There she bought a
cottage called “Maison Blanche”, and using the knowledge gained in the
boudoirs of New Orleans, began to pander to the vices of the city’s high
society. She invited the wealthy
elite and others thrill-seekers to take part in orgiastic dancing, drinking and
In the meantime her network of slaves and servants working in
the homes of the wealthy elite, continued to feed back information about their
owners, their habits and confidential affairs.
As a result, Laveau had the most detailed knowledge of political workings
and social power in New Orleans. It
wasn’t long before the rich and powerful were calling on her for help with
their illicit affairs, business judgements and domestic issues, which Laveau was
happy to resolve for a price. High
and mighty judges, politicians and others paid for her help to win elections,
and even the police and media were not immune to exchanging reciprocal services.
By the early 1830’s there were still a number of Voodoo
Queens operating in New Orleans, all vying for control of the Sunday Congo
Square dances. Having gained
control of the Lake Pontchartrain, Laveau now set her sights on disposing of her
rivals and becoming the supreme Voodoo Queen of the whole area. If her rites and gris-gris did not frighten them off, Laveau
(a big and statuesque woman) was not apposed to meeting them in the street and
beating them until they yielded. The
battle of the Queens lasted several years until one by one under a pledge of
loyalty, those that remained agreed to act as sub-queens, while those that
refused she ran out of town.
After gaining control of the Congo Square Dances, on Sundays,
Laveau would enter the square before the other dancers and entertaining the
fascinated crowds with her snake Zombi. In
the meantime her secret meetings and rituals at the lake inevitably became
known, so Laveau used them to further her reputation as the supreme Voodoo Queen
of New Orleans. She invited the
public, press, police and other thrill-seekers to attend and charged them a fee
for admission, thus making Voodoo a very profitable business.
Strange as it might seem, Laveau was still a devoted Catholic
and overtime began to incorporate various influences of Catholicism to her
rituals, including: the practice of
baptism, candles, bells, crosses, holy water, incense, chants, prayers and
statues of the Saints (many tribal gods are identified with Roman Catholic
saints, the Snake god for example, is identified with St Patrick).
She even gained the approval of the local priest at St. Louis Cathedral
by encouraging her followers to attend mass.
While she continued to charge the rich for her services, she also gave
freely to the needy and administered to their suffering.
Once a year Laveau presided over the ritual of St. John's Eve,
held on the banks of Bayou St. John, it started at dusk on the 23rd
June and ending at dawn the next day, St. John's day. The ritual typically started with Laveau dancing with her
snake Zombi wrapped around her, and as the night wore on there would be much
drinking, singing, naked dancing, drumming, feasting, bonfires and animal
sacrifices in which offerings were made to the “loas” (ancestor spirits) for
protection. Many of the dancers
would fall into ecstatic trances, possessed of the loa spirits, during which
they would perform cures and give advice to onlookers. Hundreds of people attended the St. John's Eve ritual, and
each was charged an admission fee.
Such was Laveau’s reputation, that even in her own time,
rumours, myths and legends about her abilities began to spread.
One story that continues to hold some credibility occurred during the
1830’s. A young man from a
wealthy highly respected Creole family, seriously violated a young girl from a
family of lesser social status, but still of good reputation.
Her father was a friend of the local district attorney and charged the
young man with rape. This greatly
alarmed the young mans father, for public sentiment strongly favoured the young
woman. The attorney he had employed
for his sons defence saw no way of beating the charge and seemed willing to
settle for a light sentence, which would greatly affect the family’s good name
and position in high society.
Not wishing to bring shame on his family, the young man turned
to Laveau and begged for her help, promising his father would pay her handsomely
if she could somehow bring about his acquittal and spare his family from
disgrace. Laveau assured him that
it could be done, but would hold him to his promise. When the young man told his father, he was sceptical, but
replied that if she succeeded, he would give her a house he owned on St. Anne
On the night before his trial Laveau allegedly performed
certain rituals and made gris-gris bags, which she then distributed around town.
So confidant of her own power and the fear she could instil in people,
she even attached her name and a message “the defendant is innocent” to the
bags, just so the recipient would know from whom it came and what she required
of them. The next day when the
court convened, Laveau sat in a prominent position in the public gallery where
everybody could see her, and despite a rigorous presentation by the prosecuting
attorney, the case was dismissed and the young man acquitted.
While her success in this case cannot be attributed to the
magical power of her gris-gris alone, more it was achieved through the power of
her reputation, and the general fear and superstition that surrounded Voodoo.
More probably it was through her network of spies that Laveau was able to
determine which Judge would be trying the case and who was most likely to sit on
the jury, and then use the fear of Voodoo to intimidate and influence the course
of the trial. Whatever the case,
Laveau was rewarded with a house at 152 St. Anne Street (now 1020).
Through the 1830’s and 40’s Laveau continued to provide
intimate liaisons and aid business transactions on behalf of the rich and
powerful of New Orleans, she also continued to presided over risqué parties and
Voodoo rituals held in wealthy private homes all over the city and nearby areas,
including the backyard of her own house at 152 St. Anne Street, the house she
acquired from the Creole gentleman after his sons trial and acquittal of rape.
The St. Anne Street house she had filled with the all paraphernalia of
Voodoo, and later became the main abode for Laveau’s eldest daughter Marie
Laveau was not just about Voodoo however, in 1853 when a Yellow
Fever epidemic threatened New Orleans, a special committee of gentlemen was
appointed at a mass meeting of the people held in Globe Hall, their mission was
to requested Laveau’s help on behalf of all the people to minister to the
fever stricken. They needn’t have
worried, for Laveau was already out fighting the decease wherever it could be
found. Many of those who survived
the endemic owed their survival to Laveau’s dedicated care and ministrations.
Laveau also made frequent visits to the sick and condemned in
the New Orleans’ prisons, there she would sit and pray with the condemned and
provide what comforts she could to ease their last moments.
Whenever a prisoner excited her pity, Laveau would endeavour to petition
the law courts and Judge’s on their behalf in efforts to obtain a pardon, or
at least have their sentences commuted. How
often she succeeded (if ever she did) has not been recorded.
Toward the end of the 1850’s, another story that became part
of Laveau’s myth and legend began to circulate, this one in regard to a
wealthy businessman called J. B. Langrast.
Langrast while wealthy was of little repute in New Orleans.
He owned a house on Dumaine Street with a large yard from were he made a
living selling scrap and junk. Most
of the stuff he sold was allegedly stolen and give him a very dubious
reputation. He also had an intense
hatred of Voodoo, which he thought was merely a scam to cheat believers out of
their money, but evidently much more profitable than his own dodgy dealings.
Perhaps out of jealousy, Langrast dared to challenge Laveau’s
authority as the leader of Voodoo in New Orleans. Whenever a robbery or murder occurred (which was often),
Langrast publicly accused her and her followers of using Voodoo to commit such
crimes. Naturally this did not
please Laveau, and soon gris-gris bags containing rooster’s heads and other
nasty things began to appear daily on his doorstep.
Some claim that Laveau cursed him with insanity, for his personality
started to change, he began muttering to himself and appeared in public to be
nervous and agitated. Eventually he
fled New Orleans in fear of his life. Many
of Laveau’s followers believed that fear and the power of her gris-gris had
forced him to leave, but more realistically, it was fear that one of her
followers might kill him if he stayed, that caused him to go?
In 1875 at the approx age of 81, Laveau made her last
appearance at the Congo Square dances. She
then announced her retirement in order to concentrate what time she had left
tending to the sick and condemned in New Orleans’ prisons.
Within a few years however, age finally caught up with her, and unable to
look after herself she moved into a back room of 150 St. Anne Street.
There under the care of her eldest daughter Marie Laveau II, she lay
bedridden until she finally passed into the world of the “loas” (ancestor
spirits) on the 15th
Marie Laveau II
One of the most enduring legends about the life of Marie Laveau
I is that of her perpetual youth. In
1875 when she retired from active public appearances, the average man in the
street at that time never noticed her disappearance, for she continued to appear
and preside over the Congo Square dances, yet she seemed much younger and more
full of vigour. Indeed unbeknownst
to many, it was her look-alike daughter Marie Laveau II who now began to appear
in her mother’s footsteps.
After Laveau I became confined to her bed in the St. Anne
Street house, Laveau II gradually took over her mother’s business, thus adding
to the many myths and legends that surround the Laveau name.
Laveau II was a strikingly tall woman bearing many of her mother’s
features; she also had a strong and dominant personality that she used to
control the lives of others. Like
her mother, Laveau II started out as a hairdresser, but then ran a bar and
brothel on Bourbon Street between Toulouse and Saint Peter Streets, which proved
a good training ground for when she eventually took over her mother’s position
as the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans.
Laveau II continued to run rituals and parties from “Maison
Blanche” out by lake Pontchartrain, the house which her mother had built for
secret Voodoo meetings and liaisons for the rich elite.
There she provided lavish parties called Quadroon balls, at which only
the best champagne, fine food, wine and music was offered.
She also took special care to fulfil the desires of the rich elite, white
men and women, politicians and high-ranking officials, but all for a price.
Like her mother, she also made special arrangements with the police and
media, who never raided her premises without prior notice, and then only for
show and appearances sake.
Having been taught by her mother, Laveau II was also adept in the use of herbs and other healing techniques, and sick people often came to the house on St Anne Street for treatment or a cure. Most of her healing medicines combined the use of natural products, roots and herbs that contained genuine curative elements, but she also employed other factors, including the body’s own natural healing mechanisms and the powerful effects of suggestion. To this end her cures were often accompanied by ritual praying, chanting and the burning of candles and incense for added affect.
While Laveau II continued to reign over the Voodoo ceremonies
and run the Maison Blanche, she never gained the same high respect her mother
had earned. Apparently she lacked
the warmth and compassion of her mother, and instead inspired fear and
subservience. Some claim Laveau II
drowned on the 11th June 1897 during a big storm on Lake
Pontchartrain, while others claim she died of a heart attack during one of the
Much controversy still surrounds the burial sites of the two Laveau’s. The tomb of Marie Laveau I is thought to be that located in St. Louis Cemetery No 1 on Basin Street, in the vault of “Famille Veuvee Paris nee Laveau” where people today still place flowers and mark X’s in chalk on the vault walls in hopes to gain her blessing. The tomb of Marie Laveau II is given as that in St. Louis Cemetery No 2 on Iberville Street, in the vault of the Desdunes family, however historians now place her in a different tomb a few feet away, under the name Mrs. Charles Laveau …and so the myths and legends continue???
The Laveau – Paris marriage certificate of August 4, 1819; is still preserved in Saint Louis Cathedral in New Orleans.
Mysterious Marie Laveau, Voodoo Queen - by Raymond J. Martinez.
The Encyclopedia of Witches & Witchcraft - Rosemary Ellen Guiley
Written and compiled 16th July 2007 © George Knowles
Best wishes and Blessed Be
Site Contents - Links to all Pages
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Wicca & Witchcraft
Wiccan Rede / Charge of the Goddess / Charge of the God / The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) / The Witches Chant / The Witches Creed / Descent of the Goddess / Drawing Down the Moon / The Great Rite Invocation / Invocation of the Horned God / The 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief / The Witches Rede of Chivalry / A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality
Traditions Part 1 - Alexandrian Wicca / Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) / Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) / Blue Star Wicca / British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) / Celtic Wicca / Ceremonial Magic / Chaos Magic / Church and School of Wicca / Circle Sanctuary / Covenant of the Goddess (COG) / Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) / Cyber Wicca / Dianic Wicca / Eclectic Wicca / Feri Wicca /
Traditions Part 2 - Gardnerian Wicca / Georgian Tradition / Henge of Keltria / Hereditary Witchcraft / Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) / Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) / Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition / Nordic Paganism / Pagan Federation / Pectic-Wita / Seax-Wica / Shamanism / Solitary / Strega / Sylvan Tradition / Vodoun or Voodoo / Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /
Other things of interest:
Gods and Goddesses (Greek
Mythology) / Esbats &
Full Moons / Links
to Personal Friends & Resources / Wicca/Witchcraft
Resources / What's a spell? /
Circle Casting and
Sacred Space / Pentagram
- Pentacle / Marks
of a Witch / The Witches
Power / The Witches Hat
esoteric guide to visiting London / Satanism
Unitarian Universalist Association / Numerology: Part 1
/ Part 2 / Part
3 / A
history of the Malleus Maleficarum: includes: Pope
Innocent VIII /
papal Bull /
Malleus Maleficarum /
An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum
/ The letter of approbation
Nider’s Formicarius /
Heinrich Kramer /
/ Montague Summers /
/ The Albigenses
The Hussites / The
/ Shielding (Occult
and Psychic Protection) /
Sabbats and Rituals:
Sabbats in History and Mythology / Samhain (October 31st) / Yule (December 21st) / Imbolc (February 2nd) / Ostara (March 21st) / Beltane (April 30th) / Litha (June 21st) / Lughnasadh (August 1st) / Mabon (September 21st)
Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar) / Antelope / Bats / Crow / Fox / Frog and Toads / Goat / Honeybee / Kangaroo / Lion / Owl / Phoenix / Rabbits and Hares / Raven / Robin Redbreast / Sheep / Spider / Squirrel / Swans / Wild Boar / Wolf / Serpent / Pig / Stag / Horse / Mouse / Cat
In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar. For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following: Birch / Rowan / Ash / Alder / Willow / Hawthorn / Oak / Holly / Hazel / Vine / Ivy / Reed / Elder. Also see: The Willow Tree (Folk Music)
Rocks and Stones:
Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin: / Apophyllite / Amber / Amethyst / Aquamarine / Aragonite / Aventurine / Black Tourmaline / Bloodstone / Calcite / Carnelian / Celestite / Citrine / Chrysanthemum Stone / Diamond / Emerald / Fluorite / Garnet / Hematite / Herkimer Diamond / Labradorite / Lapis Lazuli / Malachite / Moonstone / Obsidian / Opal / Pyrite / Quartz (Rock Crystal) / Rose Quartz / Ruby / Selenite / Seraphinite / Silver and Gold / Smoky Quartz / Sodalite / Sunstone / Thunderegg / Tree Agate / Zebra Marble
Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:
Murder by Witchcraft / The Fairy Witch of Clonmel / A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch / The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) / Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife / The Story of Jack-O-Lantern / The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost / Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) / The Two Brothers - Light and Dark
Old Masters of Academia:
(Ancient, Past and Present)
(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders and Elders)
Abramelin the Mage / Agrippa / Aidan A. Kelly / Albertus Magnus “Albert the Great” / Aleister Crowley “The Great Beast” / Alex Sanders "the King of the Witches” / Alison Harlow / Amber K / Anna Franklin / Anodea Judith / Anton Szandor LaVey / Arnold Crowther / Arthur Edward Waite / Austin Osman Spare / Biddy Early / Bridget Cleary / Carl Llewellyn Weschcke / Cecil Hugh Williamson / Charles Godfrey Leland / Charles Walton / Christina Oakley Harrington / Damh the Bard (Dave Smith) / Dion Fortune / Dolores Aschroft-Nowicki / Dorothy Morrison / Doreen Valiente / Edward Fitch / Eleanor Ray Bone “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” / Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelly / Dr. Leo Louis Martello / Eliphas Levi / Ernest Thompson Seton / Ernest Westlake and the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry / Fiona Horne / Friedrich von Spee / Francis Barrett / Gerald B. Gardner / Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca / Gwydion Pendderwen / Hans Holzer / Helen Duncan / Herman Slater "Horrible Herman" / Israel Regardie / James "Cunning" Murrell / Janet Farrar & Gavin Bone / Jessie Wicker Bell “Lady Sheba” / John Belham-Payne / John George Hohman / John Gerard / John Gordon Hargrave (the White Fox) / John Michael Greer / John Score / Johannes Junius the Burgomaster of Bamberg / Karl von Eckartshausen / Laurie Cabot "the Official Witch of Salem" / Lewis Spence / Margaret Alice Murray / Margot Adler / Marie Laveau the " Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" / Marion Weinstein / Matthew Hopkins “The Witch-Finder General” / Max Ehrmann and the Desiderata / Monique Wilson the “Queen of the Witches” / Montague Summers / Nicholas Culpeper / Nicholas Remy / M. R. Sellers / Mrs. Grieve "A Modern Herbal" / Oberon and Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart / Old Dorothy Clutterbuck / Old George Pickingill / Paddy Slade / Pamela Colman-Smith / Paracelsus / Patricia Crowther / Patricia Monaghan / Patricia “Trish” Telesco / Philip Emmons Isaac Bonewits / Philip Heselton / Raymond Buckland / Reginald Scot / Robert Cochrane / Robert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and "The White Goddess" /Rudolf Steiner / Rosaleen Norton “The Witch of Kings Cross” / Ross Nichols and The Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids / Sabrina - The Ink Witch / Scott Cunningham / Selena Fox / Silver Ravenwolf / Sir Francis Dashwood / Sir James George Frazer / S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” / Starhawk / Stewart Farrar / Sybil Leek / Ted Andrews / The Mather Family - includes: Richard Mather, Increase Mather, Cotton Mather / Thomas Ady / Vera Chapman / Victor Henry Anderson / Vivianne Crowley / Walter Brown Gibson / William Butler Yeats / Zsuzsanna Budapest
Many of the above biographies are brief and far from complete. If you know about any of these individuals and can help with aditional information, please cantact me privately at my email address below. Many thanks for reading :-)
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