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Animals and Witchcraft

(The Witches Familiar)

Wolf 

Written and compiled by George Knowles

Wolf is a carnivore related to the Coyote, Jackal and domestic Dog.  It has powerful jaws and teeth, yellow eyes and round pupils, thick fir, a bushy tail, and other characteristics that distinguish it from other canines.  There are two main species of Wolf that are classified in the Canidae family.  The best known and largest is the Gray wolf or Timber wolf (Canis lupus).  The other is the Red wolf (Canis rufus), which is smaller in size.  Other similar animals known as wolves but not from the same genuses are:  the Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the Aardwolf (Proteles cristatus) and the Tasmanian wolf (Thylacinus cynocephalus). 

The Gray Wolf 

(Canis lupus) 

The Gray wolf is a powerful animal with a broad head, robust limbs, large feet and deep but narrow chest, and except for some domestic breeds of dog, he is the largest of living canines.  A northern male can grow to be about 2 m (6.5 feet) long, including its bushy 50-centimetre (20-inch) tail, and weigh about 20 - 80 kg (44 - 175 pounds).  The female of the species is normally smaller than the male, and those from the Southern regions tend to be smaller than those from the Northern regions.  The fur of the Gray wolf is dense, long and soft, and commonly colored red-yellow or yellow-gray with black patches on its back and sides and white on its chest and abdomen.  Those bred in the far north such as Alaska and Canada can also have coats of pure white.  The fir of the smaller Red wolf is usually quite dark in color. 

Wolves are intelligent and social animals and have long been admired, even venerated by native America Indians.  The Gray wolf usually lives in a family pack, made up of several to two-dozen family members.  There is a clearly defined dominance and hierarchy in the pack, with only the leader (the alpha male) and his chosen partner (the alpha female) having the right to mate.  These two are usually the parents of the other pack members.  Second in rank is the beta wolf or wolves, who typically take on prominent roles with regard to the upbringing of the alpha pair’s litter, and will often act as surrogate mothers or fathers while the alpha pair is away.  Larger packs may have more than one beta wolf.  The lowest-ranking member of a pack is the omega wolf, who may be the weakest or simply the most submisive wolf in the pack. 

Their territorial range can be up to one or several hundred square kilometres, which they actively defend against other wolf packs.  A wolf pack normally moves and hunts at night and are most at home hunting on the prairie to where they travel in packs searching for food.  They will also hunt on forested lands and on all but the highest of mountains.  Built for speed and stamina over long distances, they are capable of covering several miles trotting at an average pace of 10 km/h (6 mph), and have been known to reach speeds approaching 65 km/h (40 mph) during a chase.  While sprinting a wolf can cover up to 5 meters (16 ft) in a bound.  

Small animals and birds are common prey to wolves, but packs will also hunt and attack reindeer, caribou, sheep and other large herbivore mammals.  These they catch by stalking followed by a chase, usually selecting the weak, the old or the very young for easier capture.  Once the prey has been brought down, the pack then gorges, usually reducing the carcass to hair and a few bones.  In this way the Gray wolf performs an important natural function in controlling the large numbers of herbivore by weeding out those less fit for survival.  Unfortunately, wolves cannot distinguish between wild animals and domestic livestock, which they also attack.  As such they in turn became the hunted, and persecuted by humans almost to the point of distinction.  When no live prey can be found, wolves will feed on carrion (the decaying flesh of dead animals) and also eat berries.

The communal howling of a pack serves to assemble its members and communicate effectively in thickly forested areas or over great distances.  Howling is also used as a declaration of territory and to advertise its territorial claim to other neighbouring packs, particularly when a pack has something to protect such as a fresh kill.  As a rule, larger packs will more readily draw attention to themselves than will smaller packs, and neighbouring packs may respond to each other.  When hunting howling can be used to indicate danger, particularly when in close proximity to other packs.  Howling can also be a way of expressing pleasure. 

The alpha male and female normally breed in late winter between January and April each year, and can average a litter of 6 to 7 pups.  These are born in the spring after a gestation period of about 63 days.  The young are reared in a den or lair, which may be a cave, a hollow tree trunk, a thicket, or a hole dug in the ground for the purpose.  Initially the young pups are fed with meat regurgitated by their parents after a hunt, while the other members of a pack take care of the pups well being and protection.  The youngest members remain with the pack until they reach sexual maturity, normally about two years, after which they leave to search for a mate and establish their own pack in new territories. 

The Gray wolf once had a greater natural distribution than any other mammal except for human beings, and once could be found all over North America from Alaska and Canada down south to central Mexico.  They were also found in abundance on the continents of Europe, Russia and Asia, and all the way down to the Mediterranean Sea, including the Arabian Peninsula and parts of India and China.  Today however, while they can still be found across northern Europe and Asia, only a small proportion of their original population now exists.  In North America their numbers have also been greatly diminished, and are now found primarily in Canada and Alaska, with much smaller numbers in Minnesota and Mexico. 

            

The Lakota Wolf Preserve in Columbia, New Jersey 

The decreasing numbers of wolves are the result of encroachments on their territory by humans, who have long regarded wolves as dangerous to livestock, pets and people.  However, few if any healthy wolves have ever attacked humans, their natural wild instinct is to avoid human contact.  The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) now lists the Gray wolf as threatened in Minnesota, and in all other areas across the United States (except Alaska), under the Endangered Species Act.  In 1987 they started a program to reintroduce the Gray wolf back into the wilderness areas of the Rocky Mountains National Park in Colorado, and the Yellowstone National Park in Idaho.

Red Wolf 

 

Red wolf (Canis rufus) 

Red wolf (Canis rufus) next to the Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is the smaller of the two main species of wolves classified in the Canidae family.  The Red wolf is native to the southeastern United States and is now virtually extinct in the wild, however as with the Gray wolf, active breeding programs are helping to return these animals to their native habitat. 

Red wolf is the smallest of all wolves and measures approximately 100 to 130 cm (39 to 51 in) in length, not including their bushy tails, which are about 40 cm (about 16 in) long.  They weigh between 20 and 40 kg (44 and 88 lb).  The Red wolf has a muscular body that is covered with reddish-brown fur, with gray or black highlights on the ears, face and tail.  They have a narrower skull and shorter fur than the Gray wolf, as well as longer legs and ears.  Like other wolves, the red wolf is an efficient hunter, preying on animals ranging from raccoons to white-tailed deer.  The Red wolf also eats plants and sometimes will scavenge dead animals. It is most active at night. 

Unlike the Gray wolf they usually live in pairs or small family groups, rather than in packs.  They normally mate for life and breed once a year.  After a gestational period of 60 to 63 days, the females produce litters of four to seven pups.  Pups are raised in a den, which the parents either dig themselves or take over from some other animal.  By about five months of age the pups are mature enough to travel with the adults and reach full maturity after two years.  Few Red wolves survive for more than four years in the wild, but members of their species have lived for 14 years or longer in captivity. 

Red wolf was excessively hunted, trapped and poisoned by European settlers in North America, who viewed them as a threat to livestock and humans.  They also suffered from the destruction of their natural habitat as a result of encroachments on their territory by humans.  As the number of Red wolves declined, it became difficult for them to find mates within their own species.  As a consequence they interbred widely with Coyotes (Canis latrans).  Today the Red wolf-coyote hybrids are still found, but true Red wolves, other than those introduced by captive breeding programs, have been considered extinct in the wild since 1980. 

In 1973 the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) started a captive-breeding program for the Red wolf, in which biologists captured a small number of Red wolves from the wild and brought them to the Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium in Tacoma, Washington.  These captive animals produced their first litters in 1977.  Over the years the number of captive Red wolves has increased and scientists have now reintroduced them to the wilderness areas of Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge in North Carolina and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 

Wolf Ancestry 

 

Dire wolf (Canis dirus) 

The oldest known wolf species, now extinct, was the Dire wolf (Canis dirus), a wolf that existed during the Pleistocene Epoch (1,600,000 to 10,000 years ago).  The Dire wolf differed from the modern wolf in several ways:  it was larger, had a more massive skull, a smaller brain and relatively light limbs.  It is probable that the Dire wolf was less intelligent than are modern wolves.  The species was considerably widespread and skeletal remains have been found in Florida, the Mississippi Valley and the Valley of Mexico.  Examples of remains can be found in the George C. Page Museum of La Brea Discoveries in California, which displays skeletons of animals from the Ice Age found preserved and trapped in asphalt deposits in the La Brea Tar Pits. 

Myths and Legends 

Fenrir the monster Wolf (Norse mythology) 

Perhaps the most famous of all myths about wolves is that of the monster wolf called Fenrir in Norse mythology.  Fenrir was the son of the trickster fire god Loki, who according myths gave birth to Fenrir himself after eating the heart of the giantess Witch Angerbotha.  His sister was the goddess Hel and his brother the evil serpent Jormungand.  After his birth, the other gods feared of his strength and knew that only evil could be expected of him, they also received prophecies of disaster concerning him and his brother Jormungand at Ragnarök (the end of the world of gods and men “Doomsday”).  Such was their fear of Fenrir, even as a pup, no one would go near him, the only god courageous enough to approach him was Tyr, a son of Odin. 

Despite their prophecies, the gods could not kill Fenrir because it would have defiled their sanctuary, so they sought some way to restrain him as each day he grew larger, stronger and more fearsome.  On their first attempt they used the strongest iron chain as could then be found called Leyding, but Fenrir broke it with just a single kick.  On the second attempt they used another specially forged chain called Dromi, which was twice as strong as the first, and while Fenrir strained a little at it this one, it too soon broke.  Now the gods became even more afraid of his power and strength. 

On seeing this, Odin sent Skirnir, Frey's messenger down into the world of the Dwarfs and had them fashion a magical restraint called Gleipnir.  This was made up of six magical ingredients:  the sound of a cat’s footfall, the beard of a woman, the roots of a mountain, a bear’s sinews, a fish’s breath and spittle from a bird.  When it was done, Gleipnir was smooth and as soft as a silk ribbon band.  Skirnir brought the new restraint back to the home of the gods, were they took it on to the island of Lyngvi by the lake Amsvartnir.  There they called Fenrir the wolf and showed him the silky band, challenging him to test his strength against it. 

Fenrir however was suspicious because of the thinness of the band.  The gods agreed to free him if he could not break out of the band himself, but Fenrir was still reluctant to have it put on him.  He asked that someone put their hand into his mouth as proof that the gods were acting in good faith, but none of the gods would take such a risk, knowing full well their intended deceit.  Only Tyr, son of Odin was brave enough to step forward and put his right hand into Fenrir’s mouth.  Fenrir was then bound with Gleipnir, and tried with all his might but could not snap the silken band.  All the other gods laughed with glee to see Fenrir’s distress, all except for Tyr as Fenrir closed his mouth and bit off his hand at the wrist. 

As Fenrir struggled against the silken band, the gods took another piece of the same band, called Gelgia, which was connected to Gleipnir and threaded it through a great stone slab called Gioll.  This they fastened deep into the earth and anchored it with a huge rock peg called Thviti.  Fenrir in his anger continued to struggle violently, stretching his jaws and snapping frighteningly at anyone who came near him.  To stop this the gods thrust a tall sword into his mouth with its hilt touching his lower gums and the point touching his upper gums, leaving his mouth propped open.  In this condition Fenrir was left alone, howling horribly with saliva running from his mouth until the time of Ragnarok (the end of the world of gods and men “Doomsday”). 

The story of Fenrir appears in both the ‘Poetic (or Elder) Edda’ of the 09th-12th century, and the ‘Prose Edda’ of Snorri Sturluson from the 13th century.  In the ‘Prose Edda’, at the time of Ragnarok, Fenrir the monster wolf broke free of his restraints and joined all the other giants and monsters in an all-out war with the gods.  During the ensuing war Fenrir killed Odin the chief of the gods by swallowing him.  Odin’s son Vidar then come forward and stepping on the wolf’s lower jaw, grasped his upper jaw in his hands and tore his mouth apart, finally killing the beast and avenging his father. 

Romulus and Remus (Roman mythology) 

In Roman mythology Romulus was the founder and first King of Rome.  He and his twin brother Remus were the sons of Mars, the God of war and of Rhea Silvia (also called Ilia) who was one of the Vestal virgins.  Rhea Silvia was the daughter of Numitor, King of Alba Longa who had been deposed by his younger brother Amulius.  It was Amulius who made Rhea Silvia a virgin Priestess, so that she would have no children to make claims against his throne.  After the birth of her two boys and to remove any threat against himself, he had the twins put into a basket and thrown into the Tiber River.  The twins were not drowned however, and were rescued and nursed by a She-wolf on the slope of the Palatine Hill.  Later they were discovered by the shepherd Faustulus and reared by his wife Acca Larentia.  When the twins grew to manhood, the brothers deposed Amulius and placed their grandfather Numitor on the throne. 

 

She-Wolf of the Capitol

Although She-Wolf of the Capitol (circa 500 bc) is actually an Etruscan sculpture, it is associated with Roman art.  The bronze statue, which stands 85 cm (33 in) high, is the symbol of the city of Rome.  The mythological Romulus and Remus were supposed to have been kept alive by a wolf in order to fulfil their destiny as founders of the city.  The figures of the infants were created during the Renaissance, but the wolf is Etruscan. 

The brothers then decided to build a city.  However as twins will, they quarreled over its location, after much heated debate they finally decided on Palatine Hill.  Romulus then had a wall built around it for protection.  Remus was still contemptuous and to show its inadequacy scornfully climbed over it.  Romulus sized this opportunity to have Remus killed and thus became sole ruler and first King of the city he called Rome.

According to the rest of the story, to ensure the future of Rome, Romulus and his band of followers needed wives who would bear children to ensure the future of the new city.  So they invited their neighbours the Sabine peoples, to a festival and kidnapped their daughters.  A war broke out between the two communities, and peace was only restored when the Sabine women declared their preference for their Roman husbands.  The Sabine peoples then joined the Romans in a single community. 

This led to an important religious festival held annually on the 15th February called the Lupercalia.  The ceremony took place at the Lupercal, a small cave on the slopes of Rome’s Palatine Hill, where Romulus and Remus had been suckled by the She-wolf.  During the ceremony two groups of young men sacrifice goats and a dog (Wolf being held sacred) and cut their skins into strips.  Clothed only in these strips, the young men then ran a race along a specified course, tapping female bystanders with strips of their skin garments as they passed, indicating their choice partner for later revelry.  This rowdy festival was so popular that it was not abandoned until ad 494, well into the Christian era, when Pope Gelasius I replaced it with the Christian Feast of the Purification of the Virgin. 

Asena the She-wolf (Turkic mythology) 

Another legendry myth about wolves comes from the Central Asian nations such as that of the Turkic peoples and Mongols, to whom the Wolf is a revered animal.  The shamanic Turkic peoples even believed they were descendants of wolves.  The legend of Asena is an old Turkic myth that tells of how the Turkic people were created.  In Northern China a small Turkic village was raided and captured by Chinese soldiers, but they left one small baby behind.  An old She-wolf with a sky-blue mane named Asena found the baby and nursed him to maturity.  Later the She-wolf gave birth to a litter of half-wolf, half-human cubs, and therefore the Turkic people were born.  Also in Turkic mythology it is believed that a Gray wolf showed the Turks the way out of their legendary homeland Ergenekon, which allowed them to spread and conquer their neighbours. 

The Werewolf 

A Werewolf according to ancient superstition was a man who is transformed, or who transforms himself into a Wolf, both in nature and appearance.  Legend has it that a werewolf transforms himself under the influence of a full moon, and then roams about at night devouring animals, infants and corpses before returning to human form by day.  Some people change into a Wolf at will, while in others the condition is hereditary or acquired by having been bitten by some other Werewolf, thus causing him to change shape involuntarily.  If he is wounded in Wolf form, the wounds will show in his human form and this may lead to his detection. 

Stories of such Wolf transformations are given in the works of many classical writers and the superstition was common throughout Europe in late medieval times, perhaps even more so in the renaissance period of the Witch-hunt endemic caused by the “Catholic Inquisition”.  During that period fear of this imaginary Wolfman-beast reached near hysterical proportions, particularly in France and Germany, and reached a peak in the late 1600's.  As a result of these superstitions many hundreds of people were killed, burnt at the stake or given other cruel acts of punishment for their alleged powers and associations with Witchcraft. 

Out of the 16th century obsession with Witches comes some of the most detailed documented accounts of Werewolf activity, most obtained under severe duress and extreme excruciating torture.  One such account occurred in 1573, when a French village was terrorized by some sort of fiend who had killed and partially eaten several children.  Later a group of villagers rescued another child from an attack by a huge wolf, which they swore had the face of a local recluse called Gilles Garnier.  Garnier was duly arrested and persuaded “by the usual means” to confess to being a Werewolf.  The authorities seemed to be more concern and incensed that he had engaged in some of his gruesome feasts on meatless Fridays, and ordered that he be burned alive. 

Even more regrettable was the punishment meted out to Peter Stubb in Germany during 1589.  His “confession” portrays him as a diabolical Werewolf, who changed his shape by means of a magical “girdle or belt” made from Wolf skin, supposedly given to him by the devil.  Wearing such he would metamorphosed himself into a Wolf and set forth to do the Devil’s work, wreaking havoc and malice not just on men, women and children, but also on animals and livestock.  According to his “confession” over a period of 25 years before he was caught, his principal targets were women and children who he raped, killed and ate.  He also allegedly committed many ordinary mortal sinful deeds, such as fornication and incest with his sister and daughter, and to cap it all, killing and eating his own son.  After his capture, no Wolfskin belt was ever found, which to the Witch-hunters proved its diabolical origin, for surely the Devil would never allow such a prize to be found and had taken it back.  Stubb died a fearful death, from the most terrible of tortures and mutilations.     

A less severe and ugly case involving Werewolfism, was that of Jean Grenier in 1603, who was clearly a mentally retarded young man accused of being a Werewolf in southwest France.  Apparently he brought the accusation on himself by boasting to have killed and eaten many girls.  At that time several children in the area had mysteriously disappeared and were presumed dead, so his claims were believed and he was brought to trial.  During the trial he claimed to have shifted his shape by means of a magic ointment and a Wolfskin cloak given to him by a “Man in Black”, who he called “Maítre de la Forêt”.  The judges however, sensibly decided that Grenier was suffering from the mental illness of lycanthropy, adding that it was probably caused by demonic possession.  Grenier was fortunate, he wasn’t tortured as was the norm, but was imprisoned for life in a monastery. 

The term lycanthropy refers to the delusion that one has become a Wolf. 

Wolf Star (Native American Indian myth) 

It is told in the creation legend of the Pawnee that a great council was held to which all the animal Stars were invited, but for a reason no one remembers the brightest Star in the southern sky, the “Wolf Star” was not invited.  Wolf Star watched and seethed from a distance, still, silent and angry, while everyone else decided how to make the earth.  In the time after the great council the Wolf Star directed his resentment over this bad treatment at “The Storm that Comes Out of the West”, who had been charged by the others with going around the earth seeing to it that things went well.  Storm carried a whirlwind bag with him as he travelled, inside of which were the first people.  When he stopped to rest in the evening he would let the people out and they would set up camp and hunt buffalo. 

One time, Wolf Star sent a Gray wolf down to follow Storm around, and when Storm fell asleep he stole his whirlwind bag thinking there might be something good to eat inside.  Having stolen the bag Gray wolf ran far away with it, but when he opened it all the people came out.  Setting up camp, the people looked around and saw there was no buffalo to hunt.  When they realized it was a Gray Wolf and not Storm that had let them out of the bag, they became very angry and ran the Gray wolf down killing him. 

Later when Storm located the first people again and saw what they had done, he was very sad.  He told them that by killing the Gray wolf they had brought death into the world.  That had not been the plan, but now it would continue to be this way.  Storm told them to skin the wolf and make a sacred bundle with the pelt, enclosing in it things that would always bring back memory of what had happened.  Thereafter he told them they would forever be known as the Wolf people, the Skidi Pawnee.  

Wolf Star watched all this while still shining bright from the southern sky, but now the Pawnee call this star “Fools the Wolves”, because it rises just before the Morning star and tricks the wolves into howling before first light.  In this way the Wolf Star continues to remind people how when it came time to build the earth, he was ignored and forgotten. 

Totem Spirits and Medicine

 

Contributed by  -  Patricia Jean Martin 

If Wolf has called on you, you will find the following traits enhanced in your life:  A sense of loyalty and a sense of ritual, but never lacking in personal freedom...a higher intelligence and increased awareness, but never forgetting the joys of life and how to remain playful...and heightened strength and energy, but ever-mindful that a peaceful solution is always best.  In all this, and more, Wolf will be your guide. 

Wolf inspires true balance, as they are both free spirited and family-oriented at the same time.  Extremely loyal and faithful to their pack, they are rich in the spirit of acting in harmony, peace and respect, and honouring the system of rank by which they live, but they are also fiercely independent creatures and will spend time on their own.  Those with Wolf as their totem will be taught how to manage a strong family connection without losing their own personal identity. 

The more a person works with the spirit of Wolf, the more they may find themselves taking on the personality of their totem, so much so that they themselves will begin to display the characteristics of either the Alpha Wolf or a Pack Wolf.  The Alpha Wolf personality is leader of the pack and will help the more timid person take on a more active and outgoing role in life.  The Pack Wolf personality is lower in the hierarchy and knows its place within the group.  This medicine is helpful to a more aggressive and egotistical person, as it teaches him how to share the limelight, be more conscious of and helpful to others, and be more willing to compromise and work for the benefit of the whole. 

Wolves are extremely intelligent and very social, and their senses are keen.  Wolf teaches you how to listen, how to be acutely aware of your surroundings, and how to rely on your intuitions.   In fact those with Wolf medicine will find their intuition sharpened and precise, and will begin to use it more rapidly and readily.  Wolf is synonymous with the word “Guardian”, and guardianship is one thing’s he teaches and bestows.  With intuition heightened and with the knowledge Wolf brings to light through his sharp intellect and acute senses, a person under the tutelage of Wolf Spirit will find himself protective of family and friends, while their own Guardian Spirit protects them. 

A Wolf will take risks, but never foolishly.  They are noted as being the Pathfinders of the animal world.  Exploring is second nature to them.  Those who study and work with Wolf may find themselves seeking new adventures and studying new religions, as Wolf medicine takes spirituality to task and is very connected to ritualistic paths. 

Wolf will also teach you how to speak up, and always with truth and sincerity.  In the same way that their howls are used to signal to one another, or to call on or locate other members of their pack, those with Wolf medicine will find themselves wanting to share knowledge with their own kind…be it vocally or through some other form of communication, such as writing.  Wolves will also use their howls as a form of greeting each other, and sometimes will just howl for the sheer pleasure of it.  In this, they teach you to look at life with camaraderie and joy. 

The way that Wolves can at times be playful and interactive is seen in the way they react to Ravens, with who they cohabitate and even assist one another with survival.  This is done in two ways; one, they warn each other of approaching dangers, and two, they lead each other to food.  Because Ravens are known to make a ruckus when danger is nearby, the Wolf has learned to take heed of Raven’s different types of calls, and to watch in which direction he flies; thus giving him advanced warning of the same danger.  The same can be said of how Raven interacts with Wolf, for upon hearing Wolf howl, Raven too is alerted to whatever danger may be in the area. 

When it comes to helping each other find food, it is believed that Wolves watch the Raven’s flight patterns, where a certain pattern will indicate that possible prey is nearby.  Once the Wolves bring down a prey and as they are gorging, the Ravens alight nearby and wait their turn at whatever scraps are left.  It seems that Ravens are the spotters and the Wolves the hunters, and afterward comes the feast that both enjoy and share.  Raven however will not touch a carcass unless Wolf has eaten first, leading some to believe that Raven (who is also noted for being very intelligent) uses Wolf’s intuition to test what meat is good and what meat may be bad.  For all these reasons Raven has been nicknamed “Wolf-bird”.  Those with Wolf totem should also look into working with Raven Spirit too. 

Wolves are peace loving and normally not a danger to anyone.  But they are also strong and very territorial, and because of this it is best to use a “knock before you enter” approach to those with Wolf Spirit. 

On these things and many others, Wolf is a great teacher. 

End.

Sources:

To be added.

 

Best Wishes and Blessed Be.

 

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Wicca & Witchcraft

 

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Traditional Writings:

 

 Wiccan RedeCharge of the GoddessCharge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches ChantThe Witches CreedDescent of the GoddessDrawing Down the MoonThe Great Rite InvocationInvocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of ChivalryA Pledge to Pagan Spirituality

 

Correspondence Tables:

 

IncenseCandlesColoursMagickal DaysStones and GemsElements and Elementals

 

Traditions:

 

Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /

 

Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /

 

Other things of interest:

 

Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology)Esbats & Full MoonsLinks to Personal Friends & ResourcesWicca/Witchcraft ResourcesWhat's a spell?Circle Casting and Sacred Space /  Pentagram - PentacleMarks of a WitchThe Witches PowerThe Witches HatAn esoteric guide to visiting LondonSatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  /  Part 2 Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection) /  The History of ThanksgivingI have a Dream, the 1963 speach by civil rights campaigner Martin Luther King /  Auras by Graham Furnell - Part 1 and Part 2 /

 

Sabbats and Rituals:

 

Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)

 

Rituals contributed by Crone:  Samhain / YuleImbolcOstara /  BeltaneLithaLammasMabon

 

Tools:

 

Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron MagickMirror Gazing

 

Animals:

 

Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar) /  AntelopeBatsCrowFoxFrog and ToadsGoat / HoneybeeKangarooLionOwlPhoenixRabbits and HaresRavenRobin RedbreastSheep SpiderSquirrelSwansWild Boar /  Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat

 

Trees:

 

In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow /  Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  ElderAlso see:  The Willow Tree (Folk Music)

 

Sacred Sites:

 

Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /

 

Rocks and Stones:

 

Stones - History, Myths and Lore

 

 Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:   / Apophyllite  / Amber AmethystAquamarineAragoniteAventurineBlack TourmalineBloodstoneCalciteCarnelianCelestiteCitrineChrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / FluoriteGarnet /  Hematite Herkimer DiamondLabradoriteLapis LazuliMalachiteMoonstoneObsidianOpalPyriteQuartz (Rock Crystal)Rose QuartzRubySeleniteSeraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodaliteSunstoneThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble

 

Wisdom:

 

Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakeningThe Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods

 

Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:

 

Murder by WitchcraftThe Fairy Witch of ClonmelA Battleship, U-boat, and a WitchThe Troll-Tear (A story for Children)Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-LanternThe Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark

 

Old Masters of Academia:

 

Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras

 

Biographies

 

Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)

 

Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)

 

Abramelin the MageAgrippaAidan A. KellyAlbertus Magnus “Albert the Great”Aleister Crowley “The Great Beast” Alex Sanders "the King of the Witches” Alison HarlowAmber KAnna Franklin /  Anodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey  / Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite Austin Osman SpareBiddy EarlyBridget ClearyCarl Llewellyn WeschckeCecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey LelandCharles Walton /  Christina Oakley Harrington /  Damh the Bard (Dave Smith) /   Dion FortuneDolores Aschroft-NowickiDorothy MorrisonDoreen ValienteEdward FitchEleanor Ray Bone “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” /  Dr. John Dee and Edward KellyDr. Leo Louis Martello /  Eliphas LeviErnest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake and the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry /  Fiona Horne /  Friedrich von SpeeFrancis Barrett /  Gerald B. GardnerGavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gwydion PendderwenHans Holzer /  Helen DuncanHerman Slater "Horrible Herman" /  Israel RegardieJames "Cunning" MurrellJanet Farrar & Gavin BoneJessie Wicker Bell “Lady Sheba” / John Belham-Payne John George Hohman /  John GerardJohn Gordon Hargrave (the White Fox) /  John Michael Greer /  John ScoreJohannes Junius the Burgomaster of Bamberg /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von EckartshausenLaurie Cabot "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis Spence /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMarie Laveau the " Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMatthew Hopkins “The Witch-Finder General”Max Ehrmann and the Desiderata /  Monique Wilson the “Queen of the WitchesMontague SummersNicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellersMrs. Grieve "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon and Morning Glory Zell-RavenheartOld Dorothy ClutterbuckOld George Pickingill /   Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsusPatricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPhilip Emmons Isaac Bonewits Philip HeseltonRaymond BucklandReginald ScotRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and "The White Goddess" /  Rudolf Steiner /  Rosaleen Norton “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Ross Nichols and The Order of Bards, Ovates & DruidsSabrina - The Ink WitchScott CunninghamSelena FoxSilver Ravenwolf /  Sir Francis DashwoodSir James George FrazerS.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  StarhawkStewart FarrarSybil LeekTed AndrewsThe Mather Family - includes: Richard Mather, Increase Mather, Cotton Mather /  Thomas AdyVera Chapman /  Victor Henry AndersonVivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest

 

 

Many of the above biographies are brief and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with aditional information, please cantact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)

 

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