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The Sabbats

Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)

Written and compiled by George Knowles


The Winter Solstice

Yule, or the Winter Solstice is one of the lesser Sabbats of the Witches calendar, and this year in the northern hemisphere is celebrated on the 22ndof December 2015.  Yule is a celebration marking the death and rebirth of the Sun in Midwinter, and is the second of two annual solstices dividing the year (the first being Litha, which celebrates the Sun at its peak in Midsummer). 

The word “solstice” is derived from two Latin words:  sol” (the sun) and “sistere” (to stand still), the Winter Solstice therefore means, “Sun stands still ”.  Yule marks the longest night and shortest day of the year, when the Sun ceases its decline in the sky, and for three days thereafter seems to stand still and lie dormant on the horizon, after this it once again begins its ascent into the northern skies and the days grow longer.

Yule celebrates the rebirth of the Sun God, born of the Goddess after her return from the Underworld.  Fires and candles are lit to welcome the return of the Sun Gods light while the Goddess rests after delivery and the hardships of her winter in labour.  Yule or the Winter Solstice is known by various other names, including:  Alban Arthan (Caledonii or Druid), Jul (Norse), Yuletide (Teutonic), Feill Fionnain (Pecti-Wita), Gwyl Canol Gaeof (Welsh), the Longest Night, Midwinter and of course Christmas from Christianity.

The Yule celebration was particularly important to our ancestors, occurring at a time when many (the poor, the old, the feeble) were not expected to live throughout the winter.  It was a time when their very survival depended on preparations they had made during the previous nine months.  Starvation was a constant threat for many throughout the winter, indeed January through April were known as “the famine months”).  For many, the Midwinter festival was their last great feast before the deprivations of deep winter set in.  Any cattle left not needed for future breeding would have been slaughtered to provide fresh meat, and any left-over produce from the last harvest fermented and made into wine and beer for drinking.

Traditionally for the festivities, streets, homes and churches would be decorated using natural resources, such like Mistletoe, Holly and Ivy.  Their use brought colour and life into the home and acted as a means of contact with the spirits of nature at a time when such has been threatened by the declining light of the Sun.  The Druids especially prized mistletoe that grew in the sacred Oak trees, and on the Eve of the Winter Solstice would harvest the plant with a Golden Sickle.  The white berries of the Mistletoe represented the male aspects of the Sun God, and were used to invoke fertility and the awakening powers of the Sun.


Mistletoe, Holly and Ivy

Equally sacred was the Holly, which again was prized by the Druids.  When all the other trees have lost their leaves, the Holly’s evergreen nature symbolized immortality by adding a splash of colour to an otherwise barren woodlands.  The red berries of the Holly were also thought representative of the sacred menstrual blood of the Goddess.  A wreath of Holly was hung on the doors of the home for protection, and a sprig kept throughout the year for continued good fortune.  Ivy is another evergreen plant and associated with one of the most popular of the ancient Egyptian gods, Osiris, a God of the Sun, Agriculture and Health.

Given the Druids veneration of trees, it may come as no surprise that the tree should play an important part in the Yule celebrations.  As a focal point in the household, a tree, normally a conifer because of its evergreen nature, would be brought inside the home and decorated.  As the tree was a known home of the Fairies and other Spirits, to appease them, they dressed the tree with strips of brightly coloured cloth, strings of shiny beads, fruit, gingerbread men and sweets of all kinds, which they hung from its branches.  Later however, with the arrival of Christianity, early Church leaders banned the practice in their efforts to stamp out pagan beliefs and associations.

The modern Christmas tree as we know it today, only dates back to Victorian times, when the practice of decorating a tree was re-introduce and made popular Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.  In 1846 they were pictured in the Illustrated London News standing with their children around a decorated Christmas tree.  As the Queen was very popular the practice soon became fashionable, not only in Britain and continental Europe, but also in America. 

The Victoria and Albert Christmas Tree

Another tradition of old was the lighting of a Yule Log, which was done with great ceremony and as a highlight of the family celebrations.  It was believed that fire symbolized the return of the Sun after the Winter Solstice.  Traditionally the log used would have been of sacred Oak or Ash, from a tree felled on the householder’s land, or given as a gift by their landlord.  Placed in the hearth it would have been decorated with seasonal greenery, doused with cider or ale and dusted with white flour for added snow effect.  Offerings of corn or breadcrumbs would be scattered over it, and coins to aid future prosperity placed upon it.  Later the charred coins would be given away as lucky charms. On the eve of the Solstice the log would be lit and set ablaze using a piece saved from the previous years Yule log.  The log would be allowed to burn throughout the night and then left to smoulder for the next 12 days, before being put out.  A piece would then be saved and kept to light the following years log.

The Yule Log was believed to have many magical properties, and when lit was thought to ward off evil spirits.  Later when put out, pieces of the log would be distributed around the house for added protection against thunderstorms and lightning.  Likewise the ash from the fire was never discarded, but used for healing purposes in both humans and animals.  Rubbed into hands and feet it helped to protect against chilblains, when mixed with animal fodder it aided cows to calve and when mixed with corn seeds it kept the poultry flock healthy for the coming year.

Yule is all about community, friendship and helping others.  This sense of community led to another old tradition called “Wassailing”, which was the precursor to today’s practice of Christmas Carolling.  The word “Wassail” comes from the old Anglo-Saxon term “Waes Hael”, which has been variously translated as a toast meaning:  Be Well”, “Be Whole”, “Be Healthy” or “Be Happy”.  The proper response to this is:  Drink Hael”, making it a shared and mutual well wishing.  As Caroller’s still do today, traditionally friends and neighbours would go from door to door on the eve of the solstice, singing and bearing their “Wassail Cups”, to be rewarded with seasonal drinks, fruit, bread or sweets from those who could afford to give it.  The same would be freely given back to any poor and needy they met along the way.


Mythology of Yule:


In mythology, the Winter Solstice symbolizes the end of the reign of the Holly-King.  As the sun reaches the end of its decline at the Winter Solstice (represented by the Holly-King) and once again begins its ascent back to summer (represented by the Oak King) the two engage in battle.  This time the Holly-King is defeated by the Oak-King who then rules over the first half of the new year until they meet again and do battle at the Summer Solstice.  This in essence is an enactment of the annual cycle of life, growth and death in nature.  The Oak King is the growing youth whose life and strength reaches its peak in Mid-summer, while the Holly King is the mature man whose life and strength declines in Mid-winter, from where he is again re-born of the Goddess.

This change from one King to the other is a common theme for ritual re-enactments at Mid-summer and Mid-winter festivals.  In theory, the Kings are brothers and both exist as different aspect of the same Sun God, but each has varying levels of influence throughout the year.  The youthful time of the Oak King is for growth, development, health, healing and new projects, while the time of the mature Holly King is for deliberating, reflecting, contemplation and learning.

Symbols of Yule:

Yule log, evergreen boughs or wreaths, holly, mistletoe, gold pillar candles, baskets of clove-studded fruit, a simmering pot of Wassail (see below), a poinsettia or Christmas cactus.

Herbs and Plants of Yule:

Bayberry, evergreen, frankincense, holly, laurel, mistletoe, oak, pine, sage, yellow cedar, rosemary, ginger, valerian and myrrh. 

Deities of Yule:

Deities associated with this time of year include:  Newborn Gods, Sun Gods, Mother Goddesses and Triple Goddesses.  Yule Gods include Apollo (Greek), Ra, Osiris, Horus (all three Egyptian), Lugh (Irish-Celtic), Odin (Norse), Father Sun (Native American) and Jesus (Christianity), to name just a few.  Yule Goddesses include:  the Morrigan, Brigit (both Celtic), Isis (Egyptian), Demeter, Gaea, Pandora, Selene and Artemis (all five Greek), Juno and Diana (both Roman), Astarte (Middle Eastern), Spinning Woman (Native American) and the Virgin Mary (Christianity), again just to name a few.

Other associations of Yule:

The most common Colours of Yule include:  Red and Green, but Gold and White are also appropriate.  Stones of Yule include:  Bloodstones, Rubies and Garnets.  Animals of Yule include:  Stags, Squirrels, Wrens and Robins.  Mythical creatures of Yule include:  the Phoenix and Trolls.  Foods of Yule (see the Pagan Kitchen below).  Drinks for the Yule celebration might include:  Wassail (a hot drink made from wine, beer or cider, spices, sugar and usually baked apples all served in a large punch bowl), Lamb’s wool (ale mixed with sugar, nutmeg and the pulp of roasted apples), hibiscus or ginger tea, and apple cider.



Microsoft® Encarta® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. 

Cunningham's Encyclopedia Of Magical Herbs - By Scott Cunningham 

A Witches Bible  -  by Stewart and Janet Farrar 

Plus to many websites to mention 

Written and compiled on the 07th November 2008  ©  George Knowles


Best wishes and Blessed Be


Site Contents - Links to all Pages


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About me:

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Wicca & Witchcraft


Wicca/Witchcraft /  What is Wicca What is Magick


Traditional Writings:


The Wiccan Rede Charge of the Goddess Charge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches Chant The Witches Creed Descent of the Goddess Drawing Down the Moon The Great Rite Invocation Invocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of Chivalry A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColours Magickal Days Stones and Gems Elements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) /  Esbats & Full Moons Links to Personal Friends & Resources Wicca/Witchcraft Resources What's a spell? Circle Casting and Sacred Space  Pentagram - Pentacle Marks of a Witch The Witches Power The Witches Hat An esoteric guide to visiting London SatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  Part 2  /  Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Native American Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection)  The History of ThanksgivingAuras  - Part 1 and Part 2 /


Sabbats and Festivals:


The Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:


Samhain / Yule Imbolc Ostara /  Beltane Litha Lammas Mabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron Magick Mirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar) /  AntelopeBatsCrow Fox Frog and Toads Goat / HoneybeeKangarooLion OwlPhoenix Rabbits and HaresRaven Robin RedbreastSheep Spider SquirrelSwansWild Boar Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  Elder


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:


Apophyllite  / Amber Amethyst Aquamarine Aragonite Aventurine Black Tourmaline Bloodstone Calcite Carnelian Celestite Citrine Chrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / Fluorite Garnet /  Hematite Herkimer Diamond Labradorite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Moonstone Obsidian Opal Pyrite Quartz (Rock Crystal) Rose Quartz Ruby Selenite Seraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodalite Sunstone ThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble


Wisdom and Inspiration:


Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakening The Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods I have a Dream by Martin Luther King /


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murdered by Witchcraft The Fairy Witch of Clonmel A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) /  Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-Lantern The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras





Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Abramelin the Mage /  Agrippa Aidan A KellyAlbertus Magnus - “Albert the Great” Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” /  Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” /  Alison Harlow /  Amber KAnna FranklinAnodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey /  Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite /  Austin Osman Spare /  Biddy Early /  Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel /  Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke Cecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey Leland /   Charles WaltonChristina Oakley Harrington Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" /  Dion Fortune /  Dolores Aschroft-Nowicki Doreen ValienteDorothy MorrisonDr. John Dee & Edward Kelly /  Dr. Leo Louis Martello /  Edward FitchEleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” Eliphas Levi /  Ernest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake /  Fiona Horne Friedrich von Spee /  Francis Barrett /  Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft /  Gwydion Pendderwen Hans HolzerHelen Duncan /   Herman Slater - Horrible Herman /  Isaac Bonewits Israel RegardieJames "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches /  Janet Farrar and Gavin BoneJessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” /  Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" /  John Belham-Payne John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" /  John Gerard /  John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred /  John Michael Greer /  John ScoreJoseph John Campbell /  Karl von Eckartshausen /  Laurie Cabot  - "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis SpenceMargaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMarie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMatthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” /   Max Ehrmann and the "Desiderata" /  Monique WilsonMontague Summers /  Nicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellarsMrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning GloryOld Dorothy Clutterbuck /  Old George PickingillPaddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsus /  Patricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPhilip HeseltonRaymond Buckland /  Reginald Scot /  Robert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" /  Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) /  Rudolf SteinerSabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" /  Scott CunninghamSelena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" /  Silver RavenwolfSir Francis Dashwood /  Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough"S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  Starhawk /  Stewart Farrar /  Sybil LeekTed Andrews The Mather Family - (includes:  Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) /   Thomas AdyT. Thorn CoyleVera ChapmanVictor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" /  Vivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest /  



Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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