Written and compiled by George Knowles
origins of the magic circle lie in ancient history, forms of it were used in old
Babylonian magic and many of the Ceremonial Magicians of the Middle Ages and
Renaissance used them. In
pre-Christian Europe most Pagan religious festivals took place in circles,
normally outdoors under the sky and stars at night.
There they celebrated the Earth’s fertility and worshiped the Sun, Moon and Deities. But with the
rise of Christianity and the newly powerful church, most of these pagan rites
were outlawed and the oncoming persecution of witches forced the practice
underground. The pagans became
secretive about their rites and practiced them outside only after dark, lit by
fires and torches in far-out the way places.
Others brought the practice indoors away from prying eyes.
Stone circles such as Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments, sacred
groves and revered springs across Europe, are remnants of those ancient days.
are two main types of magic circles used. Those
formed by ceremonial magicians are designed to protect the magician from the
forces that he or she raises. While
those formed by witches and wiccans, are mainly used to create sacred space in
which to meet and commune with the Goddess and God. With today’s more liberal view on religion, pagan rituals
are once again being practiced in the open air, but these tend to be mass
gatherings in specially selected areas. Most
people, particularly those living in over populated towns and cities practice
at home by transforming their living rooms or bedrooms into places of power and
magic circle is an area of non-physical space created and constructed of
personal power (See - "What is Magick").
It’s a magical environment in which the deities are welcomed and celebrated,
and where rituals and magical workings take place.
In a room filled with steel, plastic and the trappings of our
technological age, as well as everyday living associations good and bad, the
need for a private sacred space is envisaged.
The magic circle defines the ritual working area and holds in our personal
power while shutting out distracting energies.
In essence it creates the proper working atmosphere for the ritual. Constructed of personal power which is raised, felt and
visualized as streaming out from the body through the magic knife (athame), a
sphere of energy is created which encompasses the entire working area, above,
below and all around it. This
energy sphere is what we consider to be the magic circle.
aid visualization (See - "What is Magic")
when creating a magic circle, most witches mark out a physical circle on the
ground. Wherever you decide to form
a circle, be it in the living room, bedroom or some other place, clear
sufficient space to mark out a rough circle on the floor.
You can do this using a length of cord laid on the ground in a roughly
circular shape, or lightly draw a circle using chalk.
If you don’t want to soil your nice living room carpet, use an old sheet
and draw your circle on it, it can then be rolled up after you have finished and
re-used on the next occasion. Personally
I use a collection of stones and pebbles to outline a circle; these can easily
be picked up again once the ritual is over.
Other things to use might be flowers (ideal for spring or summer time
rites), or pine needles (winter rites). Some
people use salt, earth or crystals to outline their circles. Use objects that spark your imagination and that are in tune
with the ritual you are performing.
are usually nine feet in diameter but any size comfortable enough to work in is
fine. Depending on your preference,
the cardinal points can be marked by candles, Brown for North, Yellow for East,
Red for South and Blue for West (See - "Candles").
The working tools (See - "Tools")
can also be assigned to the four points, particularly if you don’t use an
altar. Place the pentacle, a bowl
of salt or earth to the North representing the elements of Earth.
The censer containing smoldering incense is placed in the East to
represent the elements of Air (Fresh flowers or stick incense can also be used).
To the South a burning red candle often represents the element of Fire (A
lighted oil lamp or a piece of lava rock would also suffice here). A cup or bowl of water is placed in the West representing the
elements of Water, the last of the four elements.
your physical circle has been constructed, you will next need to construct an
altar. The altar is normally
positioned in the center, leaving sufficient room to walk or dance around it
while remaining inside the circle. Most
people use a table of whatever type they have available, but if you are
adventurous and desire to make a purpose built one, it can be made from any
substance, though wood is normally used. Many
purpose built altars you can buy are made from Willow which is sacred to the
Goddess. Depending on your
preference it can be round or square. A
round altar is symbolic of the Goddess and spirituality, while a square one
represents the four elements.
altar doesn’t have to be a table at all, particularly if you are practicing
outside; tables are bulky and cumbersome things to carry around.
It can be nothing more than an area of ground covered with a cloth upon
which to lay out you tools. A
cardboard box covered with a cloth would also suffice, as would an old log or a
large flat rock or stone. Look
around and use your imagination, make use of whatever is available, the more
natural and nature based your material the better.
Generally the altar is place in the center of the circle facing North,
its association with the elements of earth makes this the direction of power,
ideal if during the rite you intend to do some magical workings.
Some place the altar facing East where the Sun and Moon rises, ideal if
all you intend to do is commune with the God and Goddess.
its not absolutely necessary, many witches dress their altars with an altar
cloth. These can be quite ornate or
as plain as you like, but they do enhance its general appearance.
Altar cloths can be purpose bought if you don’t mind the expense, or
you could make your own. A simple
plain sheet or tablecloth folded to size and draped over or around the altar
would suffice for this. If you
like, you could even personalize it with runic signs and symbols.
Remember also to consider the colour of your altar cloth, and its
correspondences with your rite or workings (See - "Colours").
working tools can now be placed and arranged on the altar. The left side of the altar is normally dedicated to the
Goddess and tools associated with her are placed here.
These are generally: the
cup, pentacle, bell, crystal or wand and the cauldron. It’s also nice if you have one, to place an image or statue
of the Goddess here, but if you haven’t a green, silver or white candle can be
substituted. Also if you have one,
a broom can be placed against the left side of the altar.
The right side of the altar is reserved for the God, and his tools of
association. These are: the censer,
athame (black handled knife) and bolline (white handled knife).
Your Book of Shadows might also be placed here.
If you intend to work magic in your circle, be sure to have all your
necessary ingredients and equipment within it before you start (i.e. matches,
candles, herbs and oils, pen and paper etc), these can be placed on or beneath
the altar as you feel fit. Finally its a good idea to have some
refreshments to hand for use during ritual as offerings , or to replace spent
energy while working. Most rituals finish with a "Cake and Ale"
ceremony or feast.
Finally its a good idea to have some refreshments to hand for use during ritual as offerings , or to replace spent energy while working. Most rituals finish with a "Cake and Ale" ceremony or feast.
The altar and the circle it stands in is your own personal construction, and there are no hard and fast rules as to how they should be constructed or arranged. Use you imagination and do as you feel appropriate for the rite or work you are conducting. If it pleases you, it will work for you to your own advantage and satisfaction. You are now ready to begin preparing the circle for use.
As with all other aspects of working magic and performing ritual, the
process of casting a circle is highly individualistic.
I cannot emphasize enough that there is no right or wrong way of doing
things. As such, and in time, you
will find there are many methods of casting a circle, and while one method may
work for some, it may not work for others.
You need to experiment and try different methods then improvise and do
and use what works for you. By
doing this you can then form your own method, unique and special to you.
Circle casting is heavily reliant on your abilities to raise power and the
use of visualization. So if you are
new to magic and circle casting you may wish to take time out here to read my
article “What Is Magic”, in which I
have explained both techniques.
If you are practicing at home as most people do, be aware that “astral
garbage”, pockets of negativity and other non-productive energies collect in
our living spaces. For instance,
you may have had an argument with your husband or spouse, or scolded one of the
kids for doing something wrong, or even received an unexpected bill and cussed
the sender. These are all perfectly
normal everyday happenings but all produce negative energies the residual of
which hangs around and remains. As
these energies can be disruptive to our “Sacred Space”, we need to ritually
cleanse the area being used prior to the start of our workings.
Before lying out your physical circle and altar, clean the area physically
with a brush, vacuum cleaner, or mop depending on your floor covering.
Now we can clean up any negativity that might be present.
There are several ways of doing this:
If you have one among your tools, use the magical broom to ritually sweep
away the negative clutter. This in
effect is a symbolic action; the bristles of the broom need not actually touch
the floor. Sweep rhythmically while
visualizing energy sparks or flames shooting out of the broom, blasting all the
negativity away. Know and feel it
is doing so. You could also set up
a rhythmic chant while doing this, using words like: “Sweep, Sweep, Sweep this place.
Cleanse and clean my Sacred Space”.
If you don’t have a magical broom, an alternative is to use a bell.
Ringing a bell unleashes powerful energies, visualize its vibrations
attacking and demolishing any negative energy.
Start at the North point of the circle and work your way deosil
(clockwise) through East, South and West and ring the bell at each point.
Know and feel the vibrations cleansing the area.
Any type of bell can be used, but if you can, choose one with a resonant
Another method is to simply burn purifying incense such as frankincense,
myrrh, sage, thyme or rosemary (See - "Incenses").
Fumigate the area by walking deosil around the circle and visualize the
smoke dispelling any negative energy.
Once the area has been ritually cleansed, mark out your physical circle
and place your altar in the center, then lay out all your tools together with
any other equipment necessary for your rite or magical work.
Next you may wish to purify yourself with a ritual bath or shower, while
at the same time preparing yourself mentally for the coming ritual.
When you think about it, we are all bombarded each day with negative
thoughts and images, from scenes of carnage and destruction on the T.V., and in
the newspapers, to our own dark thoughts and negative reactions.
Meditate for a while thinking positive things and purify your thoughts
ready to begin your ritual.
Once you have bathed and the time to begin approaches, you will need to
consider how to dress for your ritual. Many
witches particularly those of the Gardnerian path, prefer to work “skyclad”
(naked), with the body in its most natural condition.
But ritual nudity isn’t for everyone, if you don’t feel comfortable
working nude, even in private, then don’t, there are other options.
Many wear specialized dress such as robes and tabards. These can be
quite ornate or as plain and simple as you like.
They can be purpose bought if you don’t mind the expense, or make your
own if you are handy with cotton and thread, you can even personalized it with
you own runic signs and symbols. Use
natural materials and fibers such as cotton, wool or silk and remember also to
consider its colour correspondences (See - "Colours").
If you don’t have specialized clothing to wear, simply wear some clean loose clothing of a neutral colour. It is normal to keep whatever you wear separate and wear it only for ritual and magic. The idea being that to slip into a garment used only for magic, lends a mystical atmosphere to your rituals by shifting your awareness to the coming proceeding and promoting ritual consciousness. Still, as long as you are happy and comfortable with what you are wearing (or not wearing) then that is fine, but you may wish to experiment and see what suits you best.
One other thing to mention here is "Music". Music and dance since ancient times has been incorporated into religious ceremonies and ritual magic. Not only does music enhance the atmosphere of ritual, it can also have a powerful effect on stimulating our actions and producing magic. Shamans of old (modern ones still do), used rhythmic drumbeats to induce trance like states in which to produce magic. Many modern day witches incorporate and use of music before, during and after their rituals. Pre-selected or recorded music can be played before the ritual to start and aid meditation and set the mood. During the ritual the steady beat of a drum may be used to set the pace of a dance or rhythmic rhyme of a chant. After the ritual has finish, joyous or celebratory music can be played while relaxing. Today there’s are a wide variety of pre-recorded Wiccan and Pagan cassettes tapes available, many are well worth investigating and trying. Alternatively you could simply record appropriate pieces selected from classical, ethnic, folk or contemporary sources.
The last and final thing to do is to make sure you will not be interrupted. Disconnect your telephone, close any open curtains and lock the doors if necessary. If you are working at home and have family, tell them you are not to be disturbed for sometime. Now you are ready to begin and cast your magic circle.
Enter your circle and light any altar candles you are using.
If you are using quarter candles, start at the North point (or East if
that’s your preferred direction) and light the four candles walking deosil
(clockwise) around the circle. Return to the altar and light the incense.
Before the start of any ritual, magical working or divinatory activity, a witch
will first 'Ground and Center' to booster the self's resources by infusing
'Personal Power' with 'Earth Power' producing calm within the inner-self ready
for the work ahead (see "What
is Magick"). Now you are ready to begin.
Stand in front of your altar or the center of your circle if you are not
using one and face your preferred direction.
Concentrate and build your personal power within you (see "What
is Magick"). When it has
reached a fine pitch (you’ll know when it has with practice), hold out your
projective hand (right if right handed) palm down at waist height and point your
fingers at the edge of the physical circle on the ground (you could also use the
athame if you wish). Push out with
your personal power and see and feel the energy flowing out from your fingertips
(athame). Visualize it as a bright
light (coloured if you wish) and slowly walk deosil around the circle. Now form it with your visualization into a swirling circling
band of magical glowing light the exact width of your circle.
When you can see the band of light swirling about you expand it with your
visualization and stretch it over and around you in the form of a dome, it
should encompass the whole ritual area. Now
extend the energy down into the earth, see it forming into a complete sphere of
pulsing glowing light as you stand at its center.
Feel it solidifying into a living glowing reality all around you.
Sense the edge of the circle and the difference in vibration within and
without of it. You may even feel
the temperature rise, as the air inside grows warm, charged with your energy and
alive with power. When the circle
seems complete and solid around you, cut off the flow of energy by turning the
palm and clenching your fist pulling it back to your body.
This then is your magical circle, your sacred space completed.
Time now to recoup your energies before starting the next phase of the
ritual. Do this with a bite to eat or a sip of wine or water, while savoring
the atmosphere you have created. What you do next largely depends on your ritual or the magical work you
intend to perform. Some start by consecrating the salt and water held on the
altar and using them to seal the circle. Do
this with the athame; touch the blade to the salt saying something like:
“I consecrate and cleanse this salt that it be purified and fit to use in this my sacred circle. In the name of the Goddess and God, I consecrate this salt”.
Visualize energy flowing out of the athame and blasting away any
negativity from the salt. Next do
the same with the water saying:
“I consecrate and cleanse this water that it be purified and fit to use in this my sacred circle. In the name of the Goddess and God, I consecrate this water”.
Take up the salt and starting at the North (salt is symbolic of earth and
represents North), sprinkle it around the circle moving deosil.
Visualize it purifying and sealing the circle against unwanted influences
and negativity. As you are doing so you might say something like:
“Here is the boundary of my circle where naught but love shall enter
in, where naught but love shall escape from within. This I charge with the powers of earth.”
Completing the circle return the salt to the altar and take up the
Incense. Repeat the same process
with all the other elements starting at each appropriate direction.
Incense for air representing East, Red candle for fire representing South
(care should be taken here that it doesn’t blow out as you walk around the
circle), and Water representing West. Change
the wording of the verse as you use each element.
Next you may wish to invoke the rulers of the four quarters to protect and
watch over your proceeding. There
are various teaching regarding these rulers, some people link them as the
“Spirits” of the elements, others see them as the “Old Ones” (anciently
placed guardians or watchers of the four direction), still others think of them
as the “Mighty Ones” (former humans who have climbed the incarnational
ladder to perfection, thus allowing them to dwell with the Goddess and God).
The Mighty Ones are mythologically linked to the four directions.
Again here there are no hard and fast rules of which to use, so use what
feels right for you.
Below is a basic method of calling the quarters rulers using the wand, however depending on the work and the forces you intend to call, a more powerful method of opening and closing the quarters is by using the invoking and banishing pentagram for added protection (see The Pentagram).
To call the rulers take up the wand in your receptive hand (left if your
right handed). Stand at the North
edge of the circle and hold the wand aloft saying something like:
“Spirits of the North, Old Ones of the Earth. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”
Don’t just say the words; try to say them with meaning.
Visualize the spirits arriving in a swirling glowing green mist, sense
the earth’s energies cleansing and filling the north quarter of the circle
with positive forces. Open yourself
to them and invite them in, stretch out with your awareness, sense, feel, and
know when they have arrived. When
you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the East.
Raise the wand again and say:
Ones of the East, Spirits of the Air. I
call upon you to attend my circle. Guard
it with your powers Mighty Ones!”
Again don’t just say the words, believe in them and feel the spirits
respond. See and sense them
arriving on yellow wind blowing away any negative influences and filling the
east quarter of the your circle with intellectual energy.
When you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the South.
Raise the wand aloft again and say:
“Old Ones of the South, Spirits of Fire. I call upon you to attend my circle. Guard it with your powers Mighty Ones!”
blazing orange flames of fire engulfing the whole area of the South quarter,
burning, cleansing and protecting you from harmful forces.
Finally, when you can feel their presence, lower the wand and move to the
West. With the wand held aloft say:
Ones of the West, Spirits of Water. I
call upon you to attend my circle. Guard
it with your powers Mighty Ones!”
the spirits rushing in on waves of blue-green water sweeping away all doubts and
negativity, filling the West quarter of the circle with the powers of life and
regeneration. When you can feel
their presence, replace the wand on the altar and stand still for a moment.
Feel and sense the circle around you.
Reach out to the spirits and welcome them, feel their presence and
communicate with them. Know they
are there. Feel the energies and
visualize the circle glowing and growing with power.
Your circle is now complete and ready for your ritual to begin.
At times it may be necessary to leave the circle.
Contrary to some teachings, pushing your hand into or walking through the
magic sphere will not cause any undue damage.
When you think about it being circular, if you stand at the very edge of
the circle your head and feet will necessarily extend outside of it?
At most walking through the magic sphere will give you a jolt of energy
and dissipate its strength. Should
this happen simply re-create it or strengthen it with renewed power.
To prevent this from happening it’s a common practice to cut a doorway
through which to walk. Do this by
facing Northeast and using your athame. Pierce
the wall of energy near the ground and cut and trace an archway large enough to
walk through. Move anti-clockwise
in line with the edge of the circle as you are cutting and visualize that part
of the circles energy being withdrawn into the athame. Finish back at the starting point thus creating a hole or
void through which you can walk. Withdraw
the athame and you are free to leave and re-enter without breaking the rest of
To close the doorway reverse the procedure. Point the athame at the
lower Northeast corner of the archway and push out with your power.
Visualize the energy you removed flowing out of the athame and retrace
the archway by the moving clockwise. Feel
the energy being replaced and converging with the rest of the circle.
When you are happy the circle is complete again, cut off the energy flow
and withdraw the athame. You can
now continue with your rite or workings.
Closing the circle is normally a reversal of the casting process with a
few minor differences. Once the
rite has finished and your magical work complete, thank the Goddess and God for
their help if you have called them. Some
may do this with a simple "Cake and Ale" ceremony, making offerings
and toasts to the deities before they depart, some may prefer to do this after the circle has been closed, the choice of course is yours. Take
up the wand and move to the North (or East if that’s were you started), and
hold the wand aloft saying something like:
“Farewell, Spirits of the North, Old Ones of the Earth. I thank you for your presence. Till the next time Mighty Ones, go in peace with power”.
the same process for the other directions but this time moving “widdershins”
(anti-clockwise) through West, South and East.
Some people take offence at this believing that moving anti-clockwise
within a circle creates negative energies.
Because of this many witches now shun the practice even though it is
based on orthodox teachings. Some
however still use it for dispersing the circle. The choice is up to you, if you’re not happy to move
widdershins, then move deosil as in the casting procedure.
Remember to change the words of the verse at each direction.
the wand on the altar and return to the North (or East) position.
Pierce the wall of your circle with your receptive hand (or the athame if
that’s what you used to create it). Moving
widdershins (or deosil) visualize the circles energy and power being sucked back
into your body (or athame). Feel
the circle dissolving and shrinking as you pull back its energy.
As you are doing so, sense the outside world regaining its dominance over
the area as you finish back in the North position.
Your circle is no more.
This brings an end to your use of power and energy for the time being, but while the power and energy raised during your rite or working may have been released towards its goal, residual traces of energy will still remain within the self. It is important to 'Ground and Center' yourself again and release the remaining energy back into the ground were it will safely dissipate.
All that remains now is to extinguish the quarter candles and put away your tools. Save any remaining salt for future occasions and pour any excess water outside onto bare earth. Likewise, any cake and wine left over or offerings you have made to thank the Goddess and God, should be buried outside in the earth together with the incense ashes. Next you can dismantle the physical circle and take up whatever you used to form it, also clean up any salt or other substances you may have used and scattered about during you rite. Some people leave the altar standing to allow the Goddess and God candles, as well as any working candles to burn down and out in their own time, though you may wish to move it from the center of the area.
Wicca, A guide for the Solitary Practitioner - By Scott Cunningham.
Best wishes and Blessed Be
Site Contents - Links to all Pages
A Universal Message:
Let there be peace in the world - Where have all the flowers gone?
Wicca & Witchcraft
Wiccan Rede / Charge of the Goddess / Charge of the God / The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) / The Witches Chant / The Witches Creed / Descent of the Goddess / Drawing Down the Moon / The Great Rite Invocation / Invocation of the Horned God / The 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief / The Witches Rede of Chivalry / A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality
Traditions Part 1 - Alexandrian Wicca / Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) / Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) / Blue Star Wicca / British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) / Celtic Wicca / Ceremonial Magic / Chaos Magic / Church and School of Wicca / Circle Sanctuary / Covenant of the Goddess (COG) / Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) / Cyber Wicca / Dianic Wicca / Eclectic Wicca / Feri Wicca /
Traditions Part 2 - Gardnerian Wicca / Georgian Tradition / Henge of Keltria / Hereditary Witchcraft / Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) / Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) / Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition / Nordic Paganism / Pagan Federation / Pectic-Wita / Seax-Wica / Shamanism / Solitary / Strega / Sylvan Tradition / Vodoun or Voodoo / Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /
Other things of interest:
Gods and Goddesses (Greek
Mythology) / Esbats &
Full Moons / Links
to Personal Friends & Resources / Wicca/Witchcraft
Resources / What's a spell? /
Circle Casting and
Sacred Space / Pentagram
- Pentacle / Marks
of a Witch / The Witches
Power / The Witches Hat
esoteric guide to visiting London / Satanism
Unitarian Universalist Association / Numerology: Part 1
/ Part 2 / Part
3 / A
history of the Malleus Maleficarum: includes: Pope
Innocent VIII /
papal Bull /
Malleus Maleficarum /
An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum
/ The letter of approbation
Nider’s Formicarius /
Heinrich Kramer /
/ Montague Summers /
/ The Albigenses
The Hussites / The
/ Shielding (Occult
and Psychic Protection) /
Sabbats and Rituals:
Sabbats in History and Mythology / Samhain (October 31st) / Yule (December 21st) / Imbolc (February 2nd) / Ostara (March 21st) / Beltane (April 30th) / Litha (June 21st) / Lughnasadh (August 1st) / Mabon (September 21st)
Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar) / Antelope / Bats / Crow / Fox / Frog and Toads / Goat / Honeybee / Kangaroo / Lion / Owl / Phoenix / Rabbits and Hares / Raven / Robin Redbreast / Sheep / Spider / Squirrel / Swans / Wild Boar / Wolf / Serpent / Pig / Stag / Horse / Mouse / Cat
In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar. For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following: Birch / Rowan / Ash / Alder / Willow / Hawthorn / Oak / Holly / Hazel / Vine / Ivy / Reed / Elder. Also see: The Willow Tree (Folk Music)
Rocks and Stones:
Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin: / Apophyllite / Amber / Amethyst / Aquamarine / Aragonite / Aventurine / Black Tourmaline / Bloodstone / Calcite / Carnelian / Celestite / Citrine / Chrysanthemum Stone / Diamond / Emerald / Fluorite / Garnet / Hematite / Herkimer Diamond / Labradorite / Lapis Lazuli / Malachite / Moonstone / Obsidian / Opal / Pyrite / Quartz (Rock Crystal) / Rose Quartz / Ruby / Selenite / Seraphinite / Silver and Gold / Smoky Quartz / Sodalite / Sunstone / Thunderegg / Tree Agate / Zebra Marble
Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:
Murder by Witchcraft / The Fairy Witch of Clonmel / A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch / The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) / Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife / The Story of Jack-O-Lantern / The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost / Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) / The Two Brothers - Light and Dark
Old Masters of Academia:
(Ancient, Past and Present)
(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)
Abramelin the Mage / Agrippa / Aidan A. Kelly / Albertus Magnus “Albert the Great” / Aleister Crowley “The Great Beast” / Alex Sanders "the King of the Witches” / Alison Harlow / Amber K / Anna Franklin / Anodea Judith / Anton Szandor LaVey / Arnold Crowther / Arthur Edward Waite / Austin Osman Spare / Biddy Early / Bridget Cleary / Carl Llewellyn Weschcke / Cecil Hugh Williamson / Charles Godfrey Leland / Charles Walton / Christina Oakley Harrington / Damh the Bard (Dave Smith) / Dion Fortune / Dolores Aschroft-Nowicki / Dorothy Morrison / Doreen Valiente / Edward Fitch / Eleanor Ray Bone “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” / Dr. John Dee and Edward Kelly / Dr. Leo Louis Martello / Eliphas Levi / Ernest Thompson Seton / Ernest Westlake and the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry / Fiona Horne / Friedrich von Spee / Francis Barrett / Gerald B. Gardner / Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca / Gwydion Pendderwen / Hans Holzer / Helen Duncan / Herman Slater "Horrible Herman" / Israel Regardie / James "Cunning" Murrell / Janet Farrar & Gavin Bone / Jessie Wicker Bell “Lady Sheba” / John Belham-Payne / John George Hohman / John Gerard / John Gordon Hargrave (the White Fox) / John Michael Greer / John Score / Johannes Junius the Burgomaster of Bamberg / Joseph John Campbell / Karl von Eckartshausen / Laurie Cabot "the Official Witch of Salem" / Lewis Spence / Margaret Alice Murray / Margot Adler / Marie Laveau the " Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" / Marion Weinstein / Matthew Hopkins “The Witch-Finder General” / Max Ehrmann and the Desiderata / Monique Wilson the “Queen of the Witches” / Montague Summers / Nicholas Culpeper / Nicholas Remy / M. R. Sellers / Mrs. Grieve "A Modern Herbal" / Oberon and Morning Glory Zell-Ravenheart / Old Dorothy Clutterbuck / Old George Pickingill / Paddy Slade / Pamela Colman-Smith / Paracelsus / Patricia Crowther / Patricia Monaghan / Patricia “Trish” Telesco / Philip Emmons Isaac Bonewits / Philip Heselton / Raymond Buckland / Reginald Scot / Robert Cochrane / Robert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and "The White Goddess" /Rudolf Steiner / Rosaleen Norton “The Witch of Kings Cross” / Ross Nichols and The Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids / Sabrina - The Ink Witch / Scott Cunningham / Selena Fox / Silver Ravenwolf / Sir Francis Dashwood / Sir James George Frazer / S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” / Starhawk / Stewart Farrar / Sybil Leek / Ted Andrews / The Mather Family - includes: Richard Mather, Increase Mather, Cotton Mather / Thomas Ady / Vera Chapman / Victor Henry Anderson / Vivianne Crowley / Walter Brown Gibson / William Butler Yeats / Zsuzsanna Budapest
Many of the above biographies are brief and far from complete. If you know about any of these individuals and can help with aditional information, please cantact me privately at my email address below. Many thanks for reading :-)
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