Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.




Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.     Merry we meet.






The Gods & Goddesses

(Greek Mythology)


Compiled by George Knowles 


Page Two:  Demeter /


Page One:  Zeus /  Poseidon /  Hades and Hell /  Athena /  Apollo /  Artemis /  Dionysus



Demeter is the goddess of corn, grain and the harvest.  She is the daughter of the Titan gods Cronus and Rhea, and sister to Zeus the most powerful of the Olympian gods.  It is Demeter who makes the crops grow each year, as she is intimately associated with the seasons.  A fair-haired earth goddess she blesses all phases of the harvest as she walks through the fields dressed in green, but as the seasons change so to do her moods change and like all the other gods she is fain to show her darker side when displeased.


The cause of these mood changes in Demeter, which in turn caused the changes in the seasons, is best told in the story about the abduction of her daughter Persephone by the Lord of the Underworld, her brother Hades.


The abduction of Persephone:


As the story goes Hades had long lusted after the beautiful Persephone and although Demeter was one of the six Olympians, he conspired in a secret agreement with Zeus to kidnap Persephone and make her his wife in the Underworld.


While playing in the garden with the daughters of Oceanus, Persephone looked out into the surrounding meadow and saw a beautiful stretch of flowers, with a cry of delight she rushed out to pick some for her mother Demeter.  However these flowers were not the natural work of nature, but divine flowers put there by Zeus to entice the girl into a trap.  The trigger for the trap was an irresistible flower with one hundred stems of fragrant blossoms.  When Persephone reached out with both hands to pluck the flower, the earth opened up at her feet.  Hades roared forth in his golden chariot and seized her before the alarm could be raised.


Only Demeter, Hecate and Apollo, heard Persephone’s faint cries, but no one knew where she had been taken.  Demeter searched in vain for her daughter, and so great was her sorrow that she denied herself food, drink and comfort for nine days.  When Dawn arrived on the tenth day, Hecate (Goddess of the Moon, Enchantment and Night Spirits) came to Demeter and told her that she had heard but not seen the abduction of poor Persephone.  The two goddesses went to consult with Apollo, the God of Truth who cannot speak a lie, who during his daily travels sees all mortal and immortal actions.


Apollo of course, knew about the secret plot between Zeus and Hades and told Demeter who was to blame.  He further advised her to accept the situation, as Hades was a ‘Lord of Many’ and not an unseemly husband.  Demeter did not like this advice and set out on a long journey searching for and determined to find her precious daughter.  She started her search in Eleusis, disguised as an old woman called Doso.  While there she was requested by the King of Eleusis, Keleos and his wife Metanira, to nurse their two sons Demophon and Triptolemus.


In some twisted sense of revenge, perhaps due to the loss of her own daughter, Demeter determined to win the affections of the boy Demophon and make him immortal.  This she did by placing him each night in the hearth, to ritually burn away his mortal nature.  However the spell was broken when Metanira walked in on her while she was performing the ritual.  To make amends she then taught the other son Triptolemus, the mysteries and principles of agriculture, which he in turn taught to others, ensuring bounteous harvests for the future of mankind.  In thanks the King and other nobles built the Telesterion Temple at Eleusis in her honour.  After it was completed, she retreated into the temple were her brooding took on a deadly turn.


In her anger at the loss of her daughter, Demeter laid a curse on the world causing plants to wither and die, and the land became desolate.  Zeus alarmed at the resulting famine brought on by Demeter’s distress, sought Persephone's return and dispatched Hermes to bring her back.  Hades knew he must obey Zeus, but was unwilling to give up his wife completely.  Before he consented to release her, he cunningly gave her a pomegranate.  Persephone ever curious with the fruits of nature, tasted a seed from the pomegranate and by doing so became eternally bound to Hades and the Underworld.


Zeus then asked Rhea his mother to offer Demeter special honours if she would return to Mount Olympus and lift the curse that was killing the earth.  Zeus promised that Persephone could spend two thirds of the year with her mother, but the remaining third must be spent with her husband Hades.


Demeter was moved by her mother’s plea and overjoyed with her daughters return, however her joy was tempered by the trick Hades had pulled, and that Persephone must eventually return to him.  The earth swiftly recovered and became fertile again, but each year when Persephone is with Hades, Demeter grieves and the earth becomes barren throughout winter.  Only when she returns in the spring does the earth blossom and bear fruit again.


Eleusinian Mysteries


The Eleusinian mysteries are the sacred rituals that became the most important religious festivals celebrated in ancient Greece.  The Eleusinian mysteries derived their name from the town of Eleusis in Attica, near Athens, where the festivals were held in honor of Demeter and Persephone.  After Demeter had taught Triptolemus the mysteries and principles of agriculture, the people’s of Eleusis began to observe the mysteries.  These were later adopted by Athens as official festivals, but the Eleusinian priesthood remained in charge.  The most important part of the festival was the initiation of candidates, and these took place every year for centuries in the Telesterion Temple at Eleusis.  Initiation into the mysteries eventually became open to all Greek citizens.


The ritual itself was divided into two parts: the Lesser Mysteries, honoring the return of Persephone, were celebrated each year in February; and the Greater Mysteries, honoring Demeter, were held once every five years in early autumn.  Initiation into the Lesser Mysteries involved a series of four rituals, one each year, that began early in the spring.  At that time, candidates for the first stage of the mysteries were told the legend of Demeter and Persephone.  Details of the other three stages have never been revealed and remain a secret.  Purification rites were also part of the ceremony of the Lesser Mysteries.


In the autumn the fifth year, revelation of the Greater Mysteries began by parading sacred objects from Eleusis to Athens.  There the ceremonies included an address by a priest to the candidates, a cleansing in the sea, a sacrificial rite, followed by a great procession from Athens back to Eleusis where the final part of the initiation was conducted in secret ceremonies.


It is believed that the tale of Demeter’ search for Persephone was probably enacted at the initiation, and was related to immortality and happiness in a future world, just as grain returns every spring after its harvest and wintry death, so too can the human soul be reborn after the death of the body.


The Eleusinian mysteries are thought to have been celebrated until the 4th century, when Alaric I, King of the Visigoths, destroyed Eleusis.  In more resent times, near the village of Lefsina, the site of ancient Eleusis, modern archaeologists have found the remains of the Telesterion temple and other sacred buildings.



Back to Top


Page Two:  Demeter /


Page One:  Zeus /  Poseidon /  Hades and Hell /  Athena /  Apollo /  Artemis /  Dionysus



To be continued...




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Wicca & Witchcraft


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Traditional Writings:


 Wiccan RedeCharge of the GoddessCharge of the God  /  The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) /  The Witches ChantThe Witches CreedDescent of the GoddessDrawing Down the MoonThe Great Rite InvocationInvocation of the Horned GodThe 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief /  The Witches Rede of ChivalryA Pledge to Pagan Spirituality


Correspondence Tables:


IncenseCandlesColoursMagickal DaysStones and GemsElements and Elementals




Traditions Part 1  -  Alexandrian Wicca /  Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) /  Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) /  Blue Star Wicca /  British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) /  Celtic Wicca /  Ceremonial Magic /  Chaos Magic /  Church and School of Wicca /  Circle Sanctuary /  Covenant of the Goddess (COG) /  Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) /  Cyber Wicca /  Dianic Wicca /  Eclectic Wicca /  Feri Wicca /


Traditions Part 2 Gardnerian Wicca /  Georgian Tradition /  Henge of Keltria /  Hereditary Witchcraft /  Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) /  Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) /  Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition /  Nordic Paganism /  Pagan Federation /  Pectic-Wita /  Seax-Wica /  Shamanism /  Solitary /  Strega /  Sylvan Tradition /  Vodoun or Voodoo /  Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /


Other things of interest:


Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology)Esbats & Full MoonsLinks to Personal Friends & ResourcesWicca/Witchcraft ResourcesWhat's a spell?Circle Casting and Sacred Space /  Pentagram - PentacleMarks of a WitchThe Witches PowerThe Witches HatAn esoteric guide to visiting LondonSatanismPow-wowThe Unitarian Universalist Association /  Numerology:  Part 1  /  Part 2 Part 3A history of the Malleus Maleficarum:  includes:  Pope Innocent VIII  /  The papal Bull  /   The Malleus Maleficarum  /  An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum  /  The letter of approbation  /  Johann Nider’s Formicarius  /  Jacob Sprenger  /  Heinrich Kramer  /  Stefano Infessura  /  Montague Summers  /  The Waldenses  /  The Albigenses  /  The Hussites /  The Sun DanceShielding (Occult and Psychic Protection) /  The History of ThanksgivingI have a Dream, the 1963 speach by civil rights campaigner Martin Luther King /  Auras by Graham Furnell - Part 1 and Part 2 /


Sabbats and Rituals:


Sabbats in History and Mythology /  Samhain (October 31st)  /  Yule (December 21st)  /  Imbolc (February 2nd)  /  Ostara (March 21st)  /  Beltane (April 30th)  /  Litha (June 21st)  /  Lughnasadh (August 1st)  /  Mabon (September 21st)


Rituals contributed by Crone:  Samhain / YuleImbolcOstara /  BeltaneLithaLammasMabon




Tools of a Witch  /  The Besom (Broom) /  Poppets and DollsPendulums / Cauldron MagickMirror Gazing




Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar) /  AntelopeBatsCrowFoxFrog and ToadsGoat / HoneybeeKangarooLionOwlPhoenixRabbits and HaresRavenRobin RedbreastSheep SpiderSquirrelSwansWild Boar /  Wolf /  Serpent /  Pig /  Stag /  Horse /  Mouse /  Cat




In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar.  For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following:  Birch /  Rowan / Ash /  Alder /  Willow /  Hawthorn /  Oak /  Holly /  Hazel /  Vine /  Ivy /  Reed /  ElderAlso see:  The Willow Tree (Folk Music)


Sacred Sites:


Mystical Sacred Sites  -  Stonehenge /  Glastonbury Tor /  Malta - The Hypogeum of Hal Saflieni /  Avebury /  Cerne Abbas - The Chalk Giant /  Ireland - Newgrange /


Rocks and Stones:


Stones - History, Myths and Lore


 Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:   / Apophyllite  / Amber AmethystAquamarineAragoniteAventurineBlack TourmalineBloodstoneCalciteCarnelianCelestiteCitrineChrysanthemum StoneDiamond  /  Emerald / FluoriteGarnet /  Hematite Herkimer DiamondLabradoriteLapis LazuliMalachiteMoonstoneObsidianOpalPyriteQuartz (Rock Crystal)Rose QuartzRubySeleniteSeraphinite  /  Silver and GoldSmoky QuartzSodaliteSunstoneThundereggTree AgateZebra Marble




Knowledge vs Wisdom by Ardriana Cahill I Talk to the TreesAwakeningThe Witch in YouA Tale of the Woods


Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:


Murder by WitchcraftThe Fairy Witch of ClonmelA Battleship, U-boat, and a WitchThe Troll-Tear (A story for Children)Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife /  The Story of Jack-O-LanternThe Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) /  The Two Brothers - Light and Dark


Old Masters of Academia:


Pliny the ElderHesiodPythagoras




Witches, Pagans and other associated People

(Ancient, Past and Present)


Remembered at Samhain

(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)


Abramelin the MageAgrippaAidan A. KellyAlbertus Magnus “Albert the Great”Aleister Crowley “The Great Beast” Alex Sanders "the King of the Witches” Alison HarlowAmber KAnna Franklin /  Anodea JudithAnton Szandor LaVey  / Arnold CrowtherArthur Edward Waite Austin Osman SpareBiddy EarlyBridget ClearyCarl Llewellyn WeschckeCecil Hugh WilliamsonCharles Godfrey LelandCharles Walton /  Christina Oakley Harrington /  Damh the Bard (Dave Smith) /   Dion FortuneDolores Aschroft-NowickiDorothy MorrisonDoreen ValienteEdward FitchEleanor Ray Bone “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” /  Dr. John Dee and Edward KellyDr. Leo Louis Martello /  Eliphas LeviErnest Thompson Seton /  Ernest Westlake and the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry /  Fiona Horne /  Friedrich von SpeeFrancis Barrett /  Gerald B. GardnerGavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca /  Gwydion PendderwenHans Holzer /  Helen DuncanHerman Slater "Horrible Herman" /  Israel RegardieJames "Cunning" MurrellJanet Farrar & Gavin BoneJessie Wicker Bell “Lady Sheba” / John Belham-Payne John George Hohman /  John GerardJohn Gordon Hargrave (the White Fox) /  John Michael Greer /  John ScoreJohannes Junius the Burgomaster of Bamberg /  Joseph John Campbell /  Karl von EckartshausenLaurie Cabot "the Official Witch of Salem" /  Lewis Spence /  Margaret Alice MurrayMargot AdlerMarie Laveau the " Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" /  Marion WeinsteinMatthew Hopkins “The Witch-Finder General”Max Ehrmann and the Desiderata /  Monique Wilson the “Queen of the WitchesMontague SummersNicholas CulpeperNicholas RemyM. R. SellersMrs. Grieve "A Modern Herbal" /  Oberon and Morning Glory Zell-RavenheartOld Dorothy ClutterbuckOld George Pickingill /   Paddy SladePamela Colman-SmithParacelsusPatricia CrowtherPatricia Monaghan /  Patricia “Trish” TelescoPhilip Emmons Isaac Bonewits Philip HeseltonRaymond BucklandReginald ScotRobert CochraneRobert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and "The White Goddess" /  Rudolf Steiner /  Rosaleen Norton “The Witch of Kings Cross” /  Ross Nichols and The Order of Bards, Ovates & DruidsSabrina - The Ink WitchScott CunninghamSelena FoxSilver Ravenwolf /  Sir Francis DashwoodSir James George FrazerS.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” /  StarhawkStewart FarrarSybil LeekTed AndrewsThe Mather Family - includes: Richard Mather, Increase Mather, Cotton Mather /  Thomas AdyVera Chapman /  Victor Henry AndersonVivianne CrowleyWalter Brown GibsonWilliam Butler YeatsZsuzsanna Budapest



Many of the above biographies are brief and far from complete.  If you know about any of these individuals and can help with aditional information, please cantact me privately at my email address below.  Many thanks for reading  :-)



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