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Old Masters of Academia
Written and compiled by George Knowles
Albertus Magnus (1193-1206? - 1280) also known as “Albert the Great” was a German scholar of theology, philosophy, natural science, medicine, alchemy, astrology, chemistry and physics. He was also an alleged magician who believed in the benefits of botany, claiming that various plants, rocks and amethysts improved clairvoyance. He was known as “Doctor Universalis” (“Universal Doctor”) because of the breadth of his knowledge, and was especially noted for introducing Greek and Arabic science and philosophy to the medieval world. He was the most prolific writer of his century and was the only scholar of his time to be called “the Great”, a title that was used even before his death.
Albertus Magnus was born Albert de Groot, in Lauingen, Bavaria, the eldest son of the Count of Bollstädt, a military lord in the service of Emperor Frederick II. Later contemporaries such as Roger Bacon (1214-1294) applied the latinised name of “Albertus Magnus” out of respect for his immense reputation as a scholar and philosopher. Nothing about his primary or preparatory education is known but it is thought he was privately tutored at home before being sent to Bologna University in Italy for his formal education. He then moved to Padua University where he studied the liberal arts and teachings of the Greek philosopher Aristotle.
While there in 1223, he was recruited by the Blessed Jordan of Saxony, the second Master General of the recently formed Dominican Order of Friar Preachers (founded by St Dominic in 1214), who was doing the rounds of major universities in Europe recruiting the best young scholars into the Dominican Order. The Order at that time was less than ten years old, and had only been granted ecclesiastical approval in 1216. Magnus was ordained in a Dominican convent house in Cologne, Germany, from where he quickly advanced through the ranks of the Order.
After leaving Padua, Magnus taught theology at several convent houses throughout Germany including: Regensburg, Freiburg, Strasbourg, Hildesheim and lastly at the convent house in Cologne, were he reinterpreted Peter Lombard’s “Book of the Sentences” (Magister Sententiarum), the theological textbook used in most of the medieval universities. He then moved on to the University of Paris were he became Master of Theology in 1245.
His most famous pupil at the University of Paris was Thomas Aquinas, who later in 1248 joined him at the new Studium Generale in Cologne, in which Magnus was appointed Regent and were Aquinas became his second professor and Magister Studentium (Master of Students). Magnus went on to become an influential Church administrator, teacher and preacher, and travelled throughout Western Europe on behalf of the Dominican Order.
In 1254 Magnus was made provincial of the Dominican Order in Germany, and in 1256 journeyed to Rome to defend the Mendicant Orders against an attack by William of St. Amour, who sought to have the Dominican’s right to alms removed. Magnus succeeded in having his book treatise “De novissimis temporum periculis” condemned by Pope Alexander IV on the 05th October 1256. During his short stay in Rome, he also filled the position of Master of the Sacred Palace, from were he preached on the Gospel of St. John and the Canonical Epistles.
A year later in 1257, Magnus resigned the office of Provincial in Germany to devote himself to his studies and teaching, although he remained a leading force in the Order. At a General meeting of the Dominicans held in Valenciennes, France in 1258, with Thomas Aquinas and Peter of Tarentasia (later Pope Innocent V), he drew up rules for the direction of studies and determined the future system of graduation to be used throughout the Order.
In 1260 Magnus was called by the Pope Alexander IV to serve as the Bishop of Regensburg, a position he resigned from in 1262, in order return to his convent in Cologne, there once again to concentrate on his scholarly interests. However from 1263 to 1264 he was made a legate of Pope Urban IV, and sent to preach the crusades throughout Germany and Bohemia, where subsequently he lectured at Würzburg and at Strasbourg.
On his journeys around Europe, Magnus showed an intense interest in natural phenomena, and was consumed by the scientific writings of Aristotle. He examined his works, commented on them, and occasionally contradicted them based on the evidence of his own observations. In his laboratory in Cologne he carried out his own experiments in chemistry, mineralogy and physics, and built up a collection of plants, insects and chemical compounds. Of his experiments he is said to have discovered the metallic element of arsenic, caustic potash, and was the first person to determine the chemical composition of cinnabar, minium and white lead.
As a theologian and philosopher, Magnus was outstanding among his contemporaries but not as innovative as his star pupil Thomas Aquinas. Magnus attempted to bring Aristotelian doctrines together with Christian teachings, and in his Summa Theologiae (1270) he maintained that human reason could not contradict revelation, but defended the philosopher’s right to investigate divine mysteries.
In 1274 Magnus was called by Pope Gregory X to attend the ecumenical Council of Lyon, where he had to defend the orthodoxy of his former pupil Thomas Aquinas and the Aristotelian doctrines that both he and Aquinas held to be true. While there he received the sad news that Aquinas had died on his way to the same Council. The news was a heavy blow to Magnus who declared, “that a shining light of the Church had been extinguished”. In 1277 when it was announced that critics wished to condemn and writings of Aquinas, believing that his teachings were too favourable to unbelieving philosophers, Magnus again travelled to Paris to defend his good name.
Magnus suffered serious health problems in 1278 and later died in Cologne on the 15th of November 1280. He was buried in a crypt tomb at the Dominican Church of St. Andreas in Cologne, while his relics were held at Cologne Cathedral. Much later in 1622 he was beatified, and later still declared a Saint by Pope Pius XI in 1931, at which time he was also acclaimed an official Doctor of the Church. In 1941 Pope Pius XII made him the Patron Saint of Natural Sciences.
In the centuries
after his death, many myths and stories were told about Magnus the alchemist and
magician. On the subject of alchemy
and chemistry, he had written many treaties, including:
Alchemy; Metals and Materials; the Secrets of Chemistry; the Origin of
Metals; the Origins of Compounds, and Concordance, which is a
collection of Observations on the philospher's stone.
Other alchemical and chemistry topics were collected under the name of Theatrum
that stones had occult properties, as he related in his work De mineralibus.
However there is little actual evidence that he personally performed
alchemical experiments. Most of the modern myths are the result of later works, such
as the alchemical work known as the Secreta Alberti or the Experimenta
Alberti, which were falsely attributed to Magnus by their authors in order
to increase their prestige through association. According to one myth, Magnus is said to have discovered the
Philosopher’s Stone and passed it on to his pupil Thomas Aquinas.
While Magnus made observations about the stone in his writings, he does
not mention ever discovering or owning it, although he did record that he
witnessed the creation of gold by “transmutation”.
Magnus was also deeply interested in astrology, as were most academics in his day. In the high Middle Ages and well into the early modern period, few intellectuals questioned the basic theories of astrology i.e. that humans lived within a web of celestial influences that affect their bodies, and motivates them to behave in certain ways. They believed that astrology could be used to predict the probable future of a human being. Magnus made this a central component of his philosophical system, arguing that an understanding of celestial influences could help us to live our lives more in accord with Christian precepts. His astrological beliefs can be found in a work he authored around 1260, now known as the Speculum astronomiae. However, details of these beliefs can be found in almost everything he wrote, from his early Summa de bono to his last work the Summa theologiae.
The works of Albertus Magnus represents the entire body of European knowledge, as was extent during his time, not only in theology but also in philosophy and the natural sciences. His importance to the history of medieval academia consists in his bringing Aristotelian doctrines to the fore against the reactionary tendencies of his contemporaries. But it was by his writings on the natural sciences that he exercised his greatest influence. Albertus Magnus must be regarded as unique in his time for having made accessible and available the Aristotelian knowledge of nature and for having enriched it by his own observations. A pre-eminent place in the history of science was accorded to him when because of his achievements, he was canonised and made the Patron Saint of Natural Sciences.
Penguin Hutchinson Reference Library Copyright (c) 1996 Helicon Publishing and Penguin Books Ltd
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2006. © 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite 2005
New Encyclopedia of the Occult - by John Micheal Greer
Plus too many more to mention.
Written and compiled on the 11th January 2008 © George Knowles
Best wishes and Blessed Be
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Wicca & Witchcraft
The Wiccan Rede / Charge of the Goddess / Charge of the God / The Three-Fold Law (includes The Law of Power and The Four Powers of the Magus) / The Witches Chant / The Witches Creed / Descent of the Goddess / Drawing Down the Moon / The Great Rite Invocation / Invocation of the Horned God / The 13 Principles of Wiccan Belief / The Witches Rede of Chivalry / A Pledge to Pagan Spirituality
Traditions Part 1 - Alexandrian Wicca / Aquarian Tabernacle Church (ATC) / Ár Ndraíocht Féin (ADF) / Blue Star Wicca / British Traditional (Druidic Witchcraft) / Celtic Wicca / Ceremonial Magic / Chaos Magic / Church and School of Wicca / Circle Sanctuary / Covenant of the Goddess (COG) / Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) / Cyber Wicca / Dianic Wicca / Eclectic Wicca / Feri Wicca /
Traditions Part 2 - Gardnerian Wicca / Georgian Tradition / Henge of Keltria / Hereditary Witchcraft / Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn (H.O.G.D.) / Kitchen Witch (Hedge Witch) / Minoan Brotherhood and Minoan Sisterhood Tradition / Nordic Paganism / Pagan Federation / Pectic-Wita / Seax-Wica / Shamanism / Solitary / Strega / Sylvan Tradition / Vodoun or Voodoo / Witches League of Public Awareness (WLPA) /
Other things of interest:
Gods and Goddesses (Greek Mythology) / Esbats & Full Moons / Links to Personal Friends & Resources / Wicca/Witchcraft Resources / What's a spell? / Circle Casting and Sacred Space / Pentagram - Pentacle / Marks of a Witch / The Witches Power / The Witches Hat / An esoteric guide to visiting London / Satanism / Pow-wow / The Unitarian Universalist Association / Numerology: Part 1 / Part 2 / Part 3 / A history of the Malleus Maleficarum: includes: Pope Innocent VIII / The papal Bull / The Malleus Maleficarum / An extract from the Malleus Maleficarum / The letter of approbation / Johann Nider’s Formicarius / Jacob Sprenger / Heinrich Kramer / Stefano Infessura / Montague Summers / The Waldenses / The Albigenses / The Hussites / The Native American Sun Dance / Shielding (Occult and Psychic Protection) /
Sabbats and Festivals:
The Sabbats in History and Mythology / Samhain (October 31st) / Yule (December 21st) / Imbolc (February 2nd) / Ostara (March 21st) / Beltane (April 30th) / Litha (June 21st) / Lammas/Lughnasadh (August 1st) / Mabon (September 21st)
Rituals contributed by Crone:
Animals in Witchcraft (The Witches Familiar and Totem Animals) / Antelope / Bats / Crow / Fox / Frog and Toads / Goat / Honeybee / Kangaroo / Lion / Owl / Phoenix / Rabbits and Hares / Raven / Robin Redbreast / Sheep / Spider / Squirrel / Swans / Unicorn / Wild Boar / Wolf / Serpent / Pig / Stag / Horse / Mouse / Cat / Rats / Unicorn
In Worship of Trees - Myths, Lore and the Celtic Tree Calendar. For descriptions and correspondences of the thirteen sacred trees of Wicca/Witchcraft see the following: Birch / Rowan / Ash / Alder / Willow / Hawthorn / Oak / Holly / Hazel / Vine / Ivy / Reed / Elder
Rocks and Stones:
Articles contributed by Patricia Jean Martin:
Apophyllite / Amber / Amethyst / Aquamarine / Aragonite / Aventurine / Black Tourmaline / Bloodstone / Calcite / Carnelian / Celestite / Citrine / Chrysanthemum Stone / Diamond / Emerald / Fluorite / Garnet / Hematite / Herkimer Diamond / Labradorite / Lapis Lazuli / Malachite / Moonstone / Obsidian / Opal / Pyrite / Quartz (Rock Crystal) / Rose Quartz / Ruby / Selenite / Seraphinite / Silver and Gold / Smoky Quartz / Sodalite / Sunstone / Thunderegg / Tree Agate / Zebra Marble
Wisdom and Inspiration:
Articles and Stories about Witchcraft:
Murdered by Witchcraft / The Fairy Witch of Clonmel / A Battleship, U-boat, and a Witch / The Troll-Tear (A story for Children) / Goody Hawkins - The Wise Goodwife / The Story of Jack-O-Lantern / The Murder of the Hammersmith Ghost / Josephine Gray (The Infamous Black Widow) / The Two Brothers - Light and Dark
Old Masters of Academia:
(Ancient, Past and Present)
(Departed Pagan Pioneers, Founders, Elders and Others)
Pioneers: Founders, Elders, Leaders and Others
Aidan A Kelly / Aleister Crowley - “The Great Beast” / Alex Sanders - “King of the Witches” / Alison Harlow / Allan Bennett - the Ven. Ananda Metteyya / Allan Kardec (Spiritism) / Alphonsus de Spina / Amber K / Ann Moura / Anna Franklin / Anodea Judith / Anton Szandor LaVey / Arnold Crowther / Arthur Edward Waite / Austin Osman Spare / Balthasar Bekker / Biddy Early / Barbara Vickers / Bridget Cleary - The Fairy Witch of Clonmel / Carl " Llewellyn" Weschcke / Cecil Hugh Williamson / Charles Godfrey Leland / Charles Walton / Christopher Penczak / Christina Oakley Harrington / Cornelius Loos / Damh the Bard - "Dave Smith" / Dion Fortune / Dolores Aschroft-Nowicki / Donald Michael Kraig / Doreen Valiente / Dorothy Morrison / Dr. John Dee & Edward Kelly / Dr. Leo Louis Martello / Edain McCoy / Edward Fitch / Eleanor Ray Bone - “Matriarch of British Witchcraft” / Eliphas Levi / Ernest Thompson Seton / Ernest Westlake / Fiona Horne / Frederick McLaren Adams - Feraferia / Friedrich von Spee / Francis Barrett / Gavin and Yvonne Frost and the School and Church of Wicca / Gerald B. Gardner - The father of contemporary Witchcraft / Gwydion Pendderwen / Hans Holzer / Helen Duncan / Hermann Löher / Herman Slater - Horrible Herman / Heinrich Kramer / Isaac Bonewits / Israel Regardie / Ivo Domínguez Jr. / Jack Whiteside Parsons - Rocket Science and Magick / James "Cunning" Murrell - The Master of Witches / Janet Farrar and Gavin Bone / Jean Bodin / Jessie Wicker Bell - “Lady Sheba” / Johann Weyer / Johannes Junius - "The Burgomaster of Bamberg" / Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim - the “Hexenbrenner” (witch burner) / John Belham-Payne / John George Hohman - "Pow-wow" / John Gerard / John Gordon Hargrave and the Kibbo Kith Kindred / John Michael Greer / John Score / Joseph “Bearwalker” Wilson / Joseph John Campbell / Karl von Eckartshausen / Lady Gwen Thompson - and "The Rede of the Wiccae" / Lambert Daneau / Laurie Cabot - "the Official Witch of Salem" / Lewis Spence / Lodovico Maria Sinistrari / Ludwig Lavater / Madeline Montalban and the Order of the Morning Star / Margaret Alice Murray / Margot Adler / Michael Howard and the UK "Cauldron Magazine" / Margaret St. Clair - the “Sign of the Labrys” / Marie Laveau - " the Voodoo Queen of New Orleans" / Marion Weinstein / Martin Antoine Del Rio / Matthew Hopkins - “The Witch-Finder General” / Michael A. Aquino - and The Temple of Set / Monique Wilson / Montague Summers / Nicholas Culpeper / Nicholas Remy / M. R. Sellars / Mrs. Maud Grieve - "A Modern Herbal" / Oberon Zell-Ravenheart and Morning Glory / Old Dorothy Clutterbuck / Old George Pickingill / Olivia Durdin-Robertson - co-founder of the Fellowship of Isis / Paddy Slade / Pamela Colman-Smith / Patricia Crowther / Patricia Monaghan / Patricia “Trish” Telesco / Paul Foster Case and the “Builders of the Adytum” mystery school / Peter Binsfeld / Philip Heselton / Raven Grimassi / Raymond Buckland / Reginald Scot / Richard Baxter / Robert Cochrane / Robert ‘von Ranke’ Graves and the "The White Goddess" / Rosaleen Norton - “The Witch of Kings Cross” / Rossell Hope Robbins / Ross Nichols and the " Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids" (OBOD) / Rudolf Steiner / Sabrina Underwood - "The Ink Witch" / Scott Cunningham / Selena Fox - founder of "Circle Sanctuary" / Silver Ravenwolf / Sir Francis Dashwood / Sir James George Frazer and the " The Golden Bough" / S.L. MacGregor Mathers and the “Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn” / Starhawk / Stewart Farrar / Sybil Leek / Ted Andrews / The Mather Family - (includes: Richard Mather, Increase Mather and Cotton Mather ) / Thomas Ady / T. Thorn Coyle / Vera Chapman / Victor & Cora Anderson and the " Feri Tradition" / Vivianne Crowley / Walter Brown Gibson / Walter Ernest Butler / William Butler Yeats / Zsuzsanna Budapest /
Many of the above biographies are briefs and far from complete. If you know about any of these individuals and can help with additional information, please contact me privately at my email address below. Many thanks for reading :-)
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